Posts Tagged “Ace Folklife”

TJ Morris Media Adviser

Theresa J Morris
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Intuitive Reader, Life Coach, Psychic Medium, Tarot Reader, Author, Entrepreneur. TJ Morris Treasure Shop. I have the TJ Morris ET Radio Show.

Bio – Theresa J Morris
Author, radio personality and spiritual intuitive, Theresa J Morris is the host of TJ Morris ET Radio and the Founder of the Metaphysical Institute of Ascension Center Energetics. She is the author of books and hundreds of articles that have been published worldwide. She has appeared on radio and television and is an eclectic soul as an investigative reporter. TJ covers topics in her passion as a mystery explorer in body-mind-spirit health and prosperity. TJ is best known for healing intuition, ancient mysteries, cosmology, metaphysics, parapsychology, ufology, and the universal mind. Theresa who prefers to go by TJ founded the original Ascension Center and Psychic Network. Tj began the ACE Folklife Artists-Authors Club and has a small business TJ Morris Treasure Shop.

TJ Morris Media Theresa J Morris Adviser

TJ Morris Media
Theresa J Morris
Adviser

Introduction
Theresa J Morris, Author, Entrepreneur – Owner TJ Morris Treasure Shop
A Book and Coffee Club shares her time as Founder of Ascension Center Org, ACO LLC Consignment Club.
Authors, Artisans, Writers, and Co-creators share in TJ Morris – ACIR – ACO Brand Recognition. Theresa J Thurmond Morris is known as TJ Morris dba ACIR and ACO and ACIR. Business-Personal-Confidential Projects.
Author of How to Social Network Metaphysics, Roswell Encounters, Theresa of Ascension and many other books. Also Agent-Consultant-Organizer – Radio Talk Show Host.
TJ Morris ET Radio and ACO Social Service Club. Websites include: Theresa J Morris http://theresajmorris.com,TJ MORRIS TV http://TJMorris.TV,
TJ Morris ACO LLC http://TJMorrisACO.com, TJ Morris ET http://TJMorrisET.com,
http://tjthurmondmorris.com – TJ THURMOND MORRIS ACO LLC – PUBLISHING on LULU.com
http://lulu.com/spotlight/TJMorrisPublishing –
Theresa J Morris company TJ Morris ACO, ACIR http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/TJMorrisPublishing
TJ MORRIS is best known as Psychic Intuitive Advisor Consultant Theresa J Morris
Intuitive Life Counselor – Ascension Minister of ACE Universal Life Ministries of Emotional-Mental-Physical-Spiritual –ACE Body-Mind-Spirit Health & Wellness Natural Product Line. TJ has the ACE Metaphysical Institute which meets on Thursdays & Sundays live on air on TJ Morris ET Radio Show. TJ also shares the Ascension Center Live on Air on Wednesdays, and ACO Alien Contact Org Saturdays. ACO Psychic Network Tuesdays Free Readings Live on Blogtalkradio.com/TJMorrisETRadio to promote her psychic friends and do free counseling in service to others. Born Theresa J Morris is a public figure as a Singer, Songwriter with BMI as TJ Morris, and the known founder of the original Psychic Network as Theresa J Thurmond Morris. Theresa is a syndicated columnist for UFO Digest in Canada since 2007.
TJ MORRIS MEDIA

http://tjmorrismedia.com

Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data
Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising
Broadcast media, communications delivered over mass electronic communication networks
Digital media, electronic media used to store, transmit, and receive digitized information
Electronic media, communications delivered via electronic or electromechanical energy
Hypermedia, media with hyperlinks
Mass media, all means of mass information and communication
Multimedia, communications that incorporate multiple forms of information content and processing
New media, a broad term encompassing the amalgamation of traditional media with the interactive power of computer and communications technology
News media, mass media focused on communicating news
News media (United States), the news media of the United States of America
Print media, communications delivered via paper or canvas
Published media, any media made available to the public
Recording medium, devices used to store information
Social media, media disseminated through social interactions

TJ Morris ET Relationship Earth
☆ Soul Mate
☆ Family
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Apparitions – Ghosts
SPECIALITIES
♣) Reiki Healer
(♣) Spiritual Counselor
(♣) Tarot Reader Since 1984
(♣)Master Healing Meditations and Prayers
(♣) Life Coach Advisor

TJ Morris Media

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Bio – Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris MEDIA

TJ Morris
MEDIA


Author, radio personality and spiritual intuitive, Theresa J Morris is the host of TJ Morris ET Radio and the Founder of the Metaphysical Institute of Ascension Center Energetics. She is the author of books and hundreds of articles that have been published worldwide. She has appeared on radio and television and is an eclectic soul as an investigative reporter. TJ covers topics in her passion as a mystery explorer in body-mind-spirit health and prosperity. TJ is best known for healing intuition, ancient mysteries, cosmology, metaphysics, parapsychology, ufology, and the universal mind. Theresa who prefers to go by TJ founded the original Ascension Center and Psychic Network. Tj began the ACE Folklife Artists-Authors Club and has a small business TJ Morris Treasure Shop.
TJ Morris Treasure Shop Authors-Books-DVD's Songwriter's CDs. Gifts

TJ Morris Treasure Shop
Authors-Books-DVD’s
Songwriter’s CDs. Gifts


Intuitive Reader, Life Coach, Psychic Medium, Tarot Reader, Author, Entrepreneur. TJ Morris Treasure Shop. I have the TJ Morris ET Radio Show.

Bio – Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris ET Radio Show Host Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris ET Radio
Show Host
Theresa J Morris


Author, radio personality and spiritual intuitive, Theresa J Morris is the host of TJ Morris ET Radio and the Founder of the Metaphysical Institute of Ascension Center Energetics. She is the author of books and hundreds of articles that have been published worldwide. She has appeared on radio and television and is an eclectic soul as an investigative reporter. TJ covers topics in her passion as a mystery explorer in body-mind-spirit health and prosperity. TJ is best known for healing intuition, ancient mysteries, cosmology, metaphysics, parapsychology, ufology, and the universal mind. Theresa who prefers to go by TJ founded the original Ascension Center and Psychic Network. Tj began the ACE Folklife Artists-Authors Club and has a small business TJ Morris Treasure Shop.

tj-morris-entertainment-logo111
Introduction
Theresa J Morris, Author, Entrepreneur – Owner TJ Morris Treasure Shop
A Book and Coffee Club shares her time as Founder of Ascension Center Org, ACO LLC Consignment Club.
Authors, Artisans, Writers, and Co-creators share in TJ Morris – ACIR – ACO Brand Recognition. Theresa J Thurmond Morris is known as TJ Morris dba ACIR and ACO and ACIR. Business-Personal-Confidential Projects.
Author of How to Social Network Metaphysics, Roswell Encounters, Theresa of Ascension and many other books. Also Agent-Consultant-Organizer – Radio Talk Show Host.
TJ Morris ET Radio and ACO Social Service Club. Websites include: Theresa J Morris http://theresajmorris.com,TJ MORRIS TV http://TJMorris.TV,
TJ Morris ACO LLC http://TJMorrisACO.com, TJ Morris ET http://TJMorrisET.com,
http://tjthurmondmorris.com – TJ THURMOND MORRIS ACO LLC – PUBLISHING on LULU.com
http://lulu.com/spotlight/TJMorrisPublishing –
Theresa J Morris company TJ Morris ACO, ACIR http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/TJMorrisPublishing
TJ MORRIS is best known as Psychic Intuitive Advisor Consultant Theresa J Morris
Intuitive Life Counselor – Ascension Minister of ACE Universal Life Ministries of Emotional-Mental-Physical-Spiritual –ACE Body-Mind-Spirit Health & Wellness Natural Product Line. TJ has the ACE Metaphysical Institute which meets on Thursdays & Sundays live on air on TJ Morris ET Radio Show. TJ also shares the Ascension Center Live on Air on Wednesdays, and ACO Alien Contact Org Saturdays. ACO Psychic Network Tuesdays Free Readings Live on Blogtalkradio.com/TJMorrisETRadio to promote her psychic friends and do free counseling in service to others. Born Theresa J Morris is a public figure as a Singer, Songwriter with BMI as TJ Morris, and the known founder of the original Psychic Network as Theresa J Thurmond Morris. Theresa is a syndicated columnist for UFO Digest in Canada since 2007.

Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data
Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising
Broadcast media, communications delivered over mass electronic communication networks
Digital media, electronic media used to store, transmit, and receive digitized information
Electronic media, communications delivered via electronic or electromechanical energy
Hypermedia, media with hyperlinks
Mass media, all means of mass information and communication
Multimedia, communications that incorporate multiple forms of information content and processing
New media, a broad term encompassing the amalgamation of traditional media with the interactive power of computer and communications technology

Theresa J Morris Story – The Messenger

Theresa J Morris, The Messenger Spirit Guide
admin May 12, 2014Uncategorized
Ascension_Age_Cover_for_Kindle AtlantisOracle TJThurmondMorris1

Avatar Ascension  Masters Guide by Theresa J Morris

Avatar Ascension
Masters Guide
by Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris Characature UFOlogistoons by Dennis Rano

TJ Morris
Characature
UFOlogistoons
by Dennis Rano

Taken UP Tom & TJ  share a Trip in Space Sara Bolton is the pen name.

Taken UP
Tom & TJ
share a Trip in Space
Sara Bolton is the pen name.

TJ Morris Media shares the future sustainability of our biosphere in a social entrepreneurial spiritual way with synergy of co-creations of independent contractors in ACO LLC USA. Theresa J Morris shares TJ Morris ET Radio and her businesses in transmedia. Social Networkers welcome to share in the being, doing making as the movers and shakers with other makers in the new paradigm of the ascension age.

Ascension Center Education is about knowing our place in the grand design. We are more than planetarians, we are universal citizens. Join ACO LLC and the Ascension Universal Life Force of those of the Universal Higher Order. Theresa J Morris, Messenger.

Living inside the Matrix called Earth, Universe, Metaverse, Xenoverse, and Omniverse

Theresa J. Thurmond Morris January 13, 2011Theresa-Janette-Thurmond-Morris-taken-by-her-Mother-in-2006-before-she-died-May-4-2011-CopyTJ-Morris-201193525822_80_80TJ-Thurmond-Morris-2010-Copy

TJ Morris
TJ Morris
Earth lives inside the Metaverse of the Unknown Xenoverse

OMNIVERSE

The Light we call the Essence of Good in All – LIGHTWORKERS!

This inner spark force of the “ALL” is what we come to know as our inner spirit that must grow and find the eternal pleasure and bond back to the all and Omnipotent from which we came. This Omnipotent is what we all recognize as the God or all that lies outside the macrocosm we call the Omniverse. We cannot get back there while we are inside the Macrocosm.

We can only feel the spark and see the spark we call life in all those who come to earth in body-mind-spirits.

Science is now going to prove that the God Particle of the “ALL” lies in all things created in this universe.

Scientist and Energy

Our universe is only one inside a multiverse inside many dimensions we call the Metaverse, that there lies inside the unknown Xenoverse. Where all levels, places, planes, dimensions, in time, and space time exist inside the macrocosm we call the Omniverse.

Those who are the smartest scientists and physicists in the world are exploring the universe with what we now call the Hadron Collider and the connections in space. It is people like me who have come back from the dead like Lazarus once did while Jesus was alive that are called Avatars on earth in today´s time on earth.

There is a driving force in all of us beings on earth. Some call this innate force, a passion, and a drive. Some call this simply energy.

Energy as the God Particle is of the “ALL”

Some refer to this energy as the “God Particle” or God, the higher power. Regardless of who we are, where we exist, what we do in life on earth, what we ascribe to as culture, traditions, and beliefs, there is one thing we can all agree on in life. That is that we were all born on earth and we will all die on earth.

When we speak of the one known fact of our species on earth, we must all begin from this one truth that we are all the same when it comes to being born and dying here on this planet.

Everything else on earth is secondary to all and nothing. Meaning grow your own spark of inner light for working with others in another world and universe. This is trial and error.

If, we can learn to share in the same language of communication and express this one known fact to each other when meeting or in passing as an honorarium and moral obligation to respect each other’s existence and the energy inside each unit as a creation of earth, then we can learn to “Live and Let Live!”

There are many on earth that is considered terrorists and we are supposedly fighting a manmade war on terrorism, and on weapons of mass destruction. We have a species have come upon various ways to destroy ourselves and our complete and entire species on this planet.

The positive and negative energy that is recognized on this planet stems from forces above and beyond our level of understanding in relation to the cosmos in space or the entire universe.

For many, we simply must produce the beings in person. For others, they want to see the spacecraft not of earth origin or as UFOS. Proof comes to some and to others they take it on faith.

There are some who are meritorious and will advance based on their own intelligent beliefs without having to have proof that those above exist.

Some believe that their religions taught them the basics on how to communicate with those above. The ones that pray to Allah and God above are praying but are they awaiting the guidance from above. Are they waiting to review the real and true answers that may be revealed in time through mediation and being still and knowing?

This is the new advancements and achievements that are to come and be a part of our future advancement of our human race on earth. Do we as a populace agrees to become conduits, oracles, and communicators for the future of our species are a question that some may answer for us all?

While on earth, we are one unit. We are also to share our inner spirit with others of our species.

We are responsible for our own discoveries as knowledge, beliefs, and perfecting physical talents. We make the one unit awareness of self as we seek a better way to be our self. Awareness of who we are as individuals and as single units participating in life that has a better chance of survival by learning to share life with other of our own species.

That which is recognized as bringing one to know those of us above is the part of the ascension process that others who have come before as teachers, master, prophets, leaders of humankind, and even known as the son of man, and the son of God has chosen to share with all who came before and after those of the past on earth.

(Source Links from Google for Readers Convenience.)

TJ´s MISSION SHARE – A WAY TO LIVEACE-FOLKLIFE-LOGOoriginal

A mission for each being on earth is exposed as part of the intelligent beings. We are they who are the intelligent beings. Contact is simply a form of acknowledgement. TJ

We offered this unit this intelligent being a position as a communicator and the position was accepted.

This is the beginning of our communications for the good of our joint intelligent beings.

Depending on the level of attainment of knowledge, while on earth of our kind and forging a talent or gift that can be shared with others of our kind above will be that which we seek in each individual unit. We choose to see that which each unit can become to be a contributing unit of our society above.

We are they who seeded the earth with our own kind so that we could share in life and the ascension life force of raising awareness and awakening the process inside the intelligent beings that we send down to earth.

There is a driving force and energy innate in all of our intelligent beings that exist all over the universe. Share this with those whom you believe can understand our communication. We are they who send information in thought form, energy waves, and in electronic communication via our chosen unit.

We have offered much assistance in the past, which was not accepted by the overall leaders for the planet earth. The information and communication was never thought to be obtainable because it was not completely understood or shared with all those who needed to share in the information to complete the process.

Some of our visitors and beings who were on a mission to leave behind our spacecraft have been killed. We observe who does what and why. We share our information while hoping to advance the human race with some information while holding back information that we believe will be mishandled or misused.

While we share some information with those whom we have learn to trust and rely upon as good communicators for us. We shall learn to share with others in the future once others reach the Ascension Center Enlightenment Attainment Levels.

We can say that many who do not understand how much of the energy works are coming close to understanding an energy that is in all things. This is what flows in and out of all living things, all beings on earth. We know that this is now the time to share what we know that the human intelligent being has discovered on their own in what they now refer to as science. We will not discuss religions on earth at this time due to all are of the higher power of those who believe in a God.

We are about the future!

We the people in the extraterrestrial community are considered spiritual in many ways. We are believers in Extraterrestrials or ET. Some of us choose to believe in many ways the ancient aliens as ancient astronauts. We also believe in a higher power, God particle, and one all knowing, omnipresence we believe to be the all-encompassing GOD.

Omnipotent Omnipresent Omniverse 0ur Macrocosm of the ALL

We the sentient intelligent beings of this earth have only learned to think inside the Macrocosm we call the Omniverse.

That is the Omnipresent Omniverse, which we call GOD that has always been. God is the all-knowing and all-powerful that we choose to believe as the ALL in all of us. People ask me if I believe in prophets and in Jesus or Jehovah. I personally choose to, as this is my choice. I was born into the Christian Church and was raised a white Anglo Saxon protestant.

This is my heritage, my culture, and in my demographic location is my tradition. I celebrate all the holidays in the United States of America. I live on the North American continent, which has a history as does all places. Due to my internet presence in this world in which we all live on this planet, the blue orb in space, I am in the larger group a sentient intelligent being that belongs to the species of earth.

What makes me somewhat different is my belief in one species on one planet in the larger scheme of things. I believe in the extraterrestrials that come and go from this planet and always have. I believe that God has many species in the Omniverse and that we are only one planet, one species, in one space in one place in this particular galaxy, in this particular universe. I think much larger and more expansive than even the greatest minds in the world. I do not mean this as a positive or negative to those who study the world psychology and profiles.

How I mean this is that due to my own life experiences and observations, I have come to realize that I am simply essence with memories of prior lifetimes that include other places and other memories. What I should like to bring to this planet from my other past lives is that I also have memories of the Andromeda Galaxy which is the closest galaxy to this one called the Milky Way Galaxy. While knowing this personally, it is hard to explain to anyone else much less Stephen Hawking or Leonard Siskin, both wonderful minds in this world in which we presently reside. I also enjoy Michio Kaku and it is these three men I most admire in the world because they work so hard at trying to understand parts of what

I already know.

The hardest part about relating the future is to find common ground. I am not an academic scholar. I am not a master of anything much less doctorate level in education of any disciplines. I am always interested in education and I read and research all the time. I am always “ON” as the saying goes with “Brain Training”. I more than anything love people, places, and things, and was raised to think like the majority of Americans in the United States to believe as Christians meaning to believe in the icon and archetype personage, prophet, master, and Lord to most on this planet earth.

We believe in his life and teachings and the knowledge that there is one Omnipotent God and God Force that is beyond the macrocosm the highest Omniverse, and that this is outside the ALL and is ALL! We the majority of Christians in America believe that the Omnipotent one God sent to this planet his only son whom was sent as divine immaculate conception to his mother Mary, who was born of immaculate conception, to her mother Elizabeth. They have a history on earth of being sent to earth to prepare the way for all of us before, during, and after the presence of the one called Emmanuel, Jehovah, and Jesus.

We all practice cultural traditions to honor this memory because we realize that he was of extraterrestrial origin that lived in a place called heaven where there are many mansions in heaven. We believe in the divine prophecy books that were found and transcribed into English for us in what we now call the King James Version written in 1611 and brought to our country by our ancestors as our ancestor who brought forth a new nation on this continent.

We are all aware of all the various religions in the world and that they all have their stories just like our Bible stories. We realize the Bible is a Guide used to share the principles we are to live by in accordance with some laws of humankind. There are versus that should not be taken out of context and each book has an original author and later transcribers.

There are myths and legends that exist and there are many books that were not included in the King James Version. Many Christians have various levels of understanding about what the King James Version and the New World Translations of the Bible represent to them, their family, friends, congregations, communities, and churches. The people who live among us are actually the church.

We understand in the days of old in the time that these scriptures were written the various churches were written to by particular beings who were believers in the faith of the one man who became Jesus the Christ who lived and died for all our sins on this planet as we could not be perfect and live up to our creators expectations who wanted companionship and was alone as the Omnipotent one in the beginning.

We also understand that at one time, many people who lived upon the earth may have not been as mentally advanced, inspired, or understood the meaning of what this being allowed for all of us to learn to live by example and to be better for our future advancement.

We call the future advancement of our lives with the shifting and uplifting of our kind the Ascension. We believe that Jesus was the chosen one and was the one who volunteered to allow his heavenly father´s will to be done on earth as it is in heaven. In other words he was chosen because he volunteered to do a mission that would serve his father´s will and not his own. That was recognized when he was impaled on a cross that at the time was a normal way to end a beings life on earth as a crucifixion.

People were crucified in those days and he chose to come to earth so that we could learn a better way to be, do, and have, with faith, hope, charity, and the greatest part of us as essence as our spirit in a body and mind while we are here on this planet. He was our example to follow and therefore we know that the “ALL” sent him so that we could find a better way to the Omnipotent Omnipresence once again and have to suffer so much under the rulers of others in the past such as Caesar. The Christ consciousness at the time was all about render unto Caesar what is Caesar´s for on earth at the time that ruled would get his just due in time.

We all die.

We also may have future lessons to learn if we do not learn them here on the planet in this lifetime. We have learned to call Jesus our Lord and Savior on this planet because he chose us as essential spirits who would come in the future age after him and we who would choose him as a role model of a better life could choose his path. We would all recognize the way, the truth, and the light that he modeled. This is why we are called as his followers his people.

There were the chosen people who did believe in a God.

They also learned to worship inanimate objects such as created iconic bulls and such made out of gold. These people at one time saw others from another place in space that was also of God´s people come to this planet in spacecraft. We saw them take gold form this planet and wanted to become as they were since they were able to leave this planet. We have stories of the Annunaki and other stories of ancient astronauts in China, India, Mexico, Eurasia, and even in North America still known among our Native American Indians who were said to be some of the first people as tribes that walked this continent.

We are finding out that we at one time were all on one continent called Pangaea. We also are realizing that there was once a land called Mu, that later became known as Lemuria before the world could understand the place called Atlantis before the one continent started separating into separate tectonic plates. This will all become known while we raise our spiritual awareness.

This means to all of us as Christians that this perfect being came to earth as a divine essence and entered into a body-mind-spirit that we all have and showed us how to live. We are to follow his example as to how best to honor our father in heaven. In this day and time in 2010 soon to be 2011 on earth in what we call time, we are all learning to raise our awareness and consciousness and shift and uplift everyone in the entire world as one species.

We believe this was the divine plan.

Those of us who believe in the divine plan are aware of what we now refer to as the Ascension Age. This is a time when our planet will combine the knowledge of our minds with the efforts to control our body-mind-spirit units and vessels that we are all using and are all in various descriptions with different colors, ethnic origins, and some have different belief systems based on their demographics, cultures, and traditions of which they were born into.

We have all learned that there are various manmade and some spiritually divine paths that were given at one time or another on earth. Some are thousands of years older than Christianity and some are much newer. We in the Ascension Center Organization believe they are all paths to the same place and understanding we call enlightenment.

Regardless of whom we are, where we live, what we look like and when and where we leave this planet, we shall all find a path that leads to our own ascension. Because of we choose to believe that our one “ALL KNOWING GOD” is the all in all of us as the spark, we believe this spark can be ignited with the Holy Spirit as the Holy Ghost and the breath of life that is in us all.

We can choose to live in the light.

We can choose to light and ignite that spark that gives us life with the breath that can come upon us as the fire that shall catch like a flame of the fire that burns inside us all. It is a metaphor for the eternal spiritual light in our entire DNA. The breath that comes upon us when we become enlightened about our true path and reason to become as the one extraterrestrial that came to earth as Immaculate Conception, lead a life as a teacher, and then gave his life for all of us who come to earth is now our Lord and Master of this planet. It was by the choosing to come to earth and show us the way back home to the eternal all that made his life and his ascension so special for us!

We have been asked on earth to learn of him and we are made with an inner knowing inside our own essence with the mind inside the brain to decide through our own spirits free will to exercise our free choice.

We honor this free will and free choice as the inner spirit and spark that no other being on earth can take from us. We are all created equal when it comes to this inner knowing and no other being can control the inner spark that was placed inside all of us as the spark of the creator and divine force we call life. Faith, without it, we cannot exist with hope of the future worlds to come. We shall be a part of the future creations in the Omniverse. We are finding trial and error inside what we call the Xenoverse which is the unknown we all learn to explore inside our own minds.

ACIR ACO TJ Morris Brand
ACIR
ACO
TJ Morris
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We are the creation of the all as a microcosm inside the matrix we call reality. Our reality inside our brains has now gone to the next level to learn of our existence outside the universe.TJ-Morris-Entertainment-Logo

We shall all accept our expansion inside the larger microcosm we call our universe.

Our expansion shall include the all that is constant in the change and flux we now call the multiverse which allows us to explore other dimensions and the branes of the metaverse.

The unknown is always the Xenoverse inside the Omniverse. We still have not learned of that which is the super conscious continental divide in our own minds from the original divine creators that must exist outside of the Omniverse which is our ultimate divine cosmos.

That which is always beyond our mental reach with our minds inside our brains is the Xeno or unknown. We will always have a vast amount of the Xenoverse separating us from the Outer Limits we call the Omnipresence outside our own Omniverse.

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Ascension Channel “TJ” About Keys to the Kingdom

Keys to the Kingdom

This form of channeled material comes to me like what we regard as downloads in the ET community of those who scribe and journal our thoughts. Some we choose to share with others in order that they too can connect with others of our social paranormal kind.

We are here as the Ascension Avatar Masters to enhance the living that is done on this planet.

I too enjoy being connected to others so I have shared this in the past year of 2011 for others to know and find. This was shared in Canada on the UFO Digest. I sent it to the publisher named Dirk Vander Ploeg as I had done since August, 2007.

We each are to share our own spiritual paths which allows others to find their way to make friends and to social network. I have the ACO Culture Club on http://acocultureclub.com.

I also have Theresa J Morris Org at http://theresajmorris.org and many other websites including Social Paranormal Magazine, American News Magazine, and Anew News Magazine.

I participate as the founder of both ACE Folklife Org and the ACE Nonprofit Inc. I also participate in the Ascension Center Organization as ACO at http://ascensioncenterorg.com.

It was my intention to allow myself to participate with others in a social network club. One for profit and one for non-profit. My acronyms are used in order to separate the two while I m on this plane of existence.

ACO is for the Ascension Center Organization of which I share in spiritual research and education.

ACE is for metaphysical research and education with art, and literacy in the heart of the co-creations with others.
We share a life with ACE Folklife for Historians and Archivists. We have art, culture, education at the heart of this club with fairs, festivals, seminars, conventions for us all around the planet.

I am sharing once again an article I found sent to someone in my email. I thought it best to poast it once again here before it was lost… Love and Light TJ

KEYS TO THE KINGDOM

By Theresa J Morris
PORTAL IN TIME
 BEGINNING BEYOND THE LAW OF PHYSICS
“TJ”
For TJTM
TJ Morris.US
Business: TJMorrisACIR@gmail.com
Personal:
TJMorrisPublishing@gmail.com
On June 15, 2011- WEDNESDAY. I was inspired
Eclipse of the MOON. I was born on a Wednesday on Dec. 26, 1951 at noon.
  On June 16, 2012 a Thursday
I was so happy that I had finally created all my websites so I could get the websites out of my head as CHAOS.
2 x 4 Quantum of Solace of TJ
COPYRIGHTS of TJ Morris tm ACIR sm – TJ Thurmond Thomas Morris
BEYOND TJ LAWS OF PHYSICS
 THE LAW OF eight
Infinity Squared
QUARK QUANTUM VIBRATIONS
1. A – ATTRACTION (Red) DO
2. B – CHEMISTRY (Orange) RE
3. C – ENERGY (Yellow) MI
4. D – GRAVITY (GREEN) FA
5. E – MATTER (BLUE) SO
6. F – MOTION (INDIGO) LA
7. G – NATURE (VIOLET) TI
8. HARMONY (OPAQUE) DO 
9. Enlightenment (WHITE) – Weak Force – MALE NEGATIVE – (-)
10. BEYOND (BLACK) – Strong Force – POSITIVE – (+)
ASCENSION AGE AWARENESS
LAWS OF PHYSICS
By: Theresa Janette Thurmond Thomas Morris
Original CREATOR of the FUTURE
BEYOND 2012 -
(12-26-12 BEGINS 60 YEARS for “TJ” on GAIA EARTH. In this body-mind-spirit. This is her 9th lifetime on this planet.) HER BEGINNING IS TIMELESS.
  TJ is the ETERNAL ESSENCE OF ENERGY AND THE BEGINNING OF TIME ON GAEA AS WE KNOW IT TO BE!
 Bottom dot inside two  “v”s one up and one down. See the Dot in the middle of the circle on the ground which is outside of our unit. We call this earth as GAEA or GAIA. The Beyond the omniverse is 7. We are not allowed to venture outside of the Omniverse in this level of learning birth-life-death (3) as body-mind-spirit (3). We are in the Prime numbers as 3.
We have not learned the mystery of essence as 1, 2, 3, 5, 8. here and accepted the awakening awareness of the ascension age. This will come 12-21-12 11:11.
 1. POINT OF ORIGIN. WHICH IS 1.
 2. Universe – The small first circle up the energy spike which is our spine and a staff or lightning bolt of Zeus. We also call this the Kundalini Spirit in Shaman and Tantra healings.
 3. Multiverse – The Second opening before the second crossing of the double helix or serpents that are crossing.
 4. Metaverse – The Third opening before the third crossing of the double helix of the serpent energy vibrations soaring up the lightning bolt energy or spine or staff in the photo.
 5. Xenoverse – The Fourth opening before the forth crossing and the largest area before we see the heads of the two serpents of yin and yang.
 6. Omniverse – The Fifth opening of the heart symbol inside the orb with wings. We use this emblem on our spaceships and the E copied the emblem and emblazoned it in gold in the days of the ancient ones that would visit our ancestors from time to time. They learned to secretive and would come as visitors in robes with their hoods up like the modern day monks wear now. We use them in our ceremonies at festivals for our S.C.A. Society for Creative Anachronism of the 17th century.
 (Except we use an E for Esther or Ether for Ethereal beings with the emblem over our heart) –
We share a red heart with wings among many who bear their soul on the planet Gaia or earth.  Various methods of knowing each other without speaking has been done throughout the ages in what some call tattooing on the body for clan recognition or spiritual belief systems or groups to identify each other.
 We wear them at the ACE Folklife festivals of art, culture, education, science, and technology, with music. We share this as the all in one Ascension Center Enlightenment Festivals all over the xenoverse before reaching the OUTER of the BEYOND. That is the zone we know has always been but we are not allowed as Lightworkers and Truthseekers to travel outside the Omniverse which is reserved for our humankind of sentient intelligent beings.
 We have to learn about the point of origin of our child universes. We start with our point of origin as (1). We then learn about our universe (2). We then can move onto the next plane as the multiverse (3). We then are allowed to span the vast Metaverses as (4.) Then we can graduate as Lightworkers to the Truthseeker level in the Xenoverse (5). The Xenoverse is where all the XFiles exist for all the vast space of space-time-dimensions-Etal. We then graduate to (6) which are Omniverse and this is where all the Supreme Beings of the Supreme Council are judged by a jury.  Then the seventh level is the outside where only the God/Goddess of the creation can venture in the Beyond. One must have become a child God or Goddess to go outside of the Omniverse and this doesn’t happen while we are in a unit or vessel on earth without spirit soaring in astral levels in the Akashic Field, The A field is the Library for God. We are allowed to receive the Keys to each Kingdom.
 However while we are in this physical dimension we are not allowed outside of the Omniverse. OMNI is of the GODs and Goddesses. The Chosen are the Council of Twelve. The Supreme High Council is likened to the Supreme Court on earth in the United States of America. We are allowed 7 continents and a few islands.
 There is a reason we are not allowed to visit outside the OMNI. For now our species is considered young as one species of the humanoid kind.
We shall all rise in the ascension age of awareness… Those that are sleepers that are not awakened here in this place will simply be passed over… They know they are sent here to experience and explore their senses while here which can be forgotten in the spirit of essence from one universe level to the other multiverses. Those who are in the METAVERSE simply Time Travel from one dimension and world to the next via wormholes from the dark to the light ones.
 Life here is simple we are born-we live-we die and then we are judged on our legacy and memories left behind and in our minds or what was our brains.
We share our energy essence as our spirit that is on a chord that returns us back to our original soul. It sounds complicated but soon science and cosmology will prove what we Avatar Masters of Ascension already know. We had teachers in past lives in other worlds.
We are running out of Avatars who will come in the time of need of transition and change.  The Guf of souls is real and is at a point in time of expansion and evading space due to the mirror of our own God and Goddess acceptance in other planes and dimensions in space-time.
 SPACE-TIME LIES BEYOND THAT OF THE OMNI AS INFINITY. THE MOST HOLY OF THE BEGINNING “ALL” is the SPIRIT of the HOLY or ONE which is the ESSENCE of the ALL ONE. THIS IS THE ORIGIN OF THE “0” or POINT OF ORIGIN AS ZERO that is the CIRCLE OF TIME.
 The CIRCLE OF TIME ON THE LINEAR LINE OF TIME IS THE POINT OF ORIGIN. WE BEGIN AS A DOT OR “O” WHICH IS THE NEUTRAL X OR ZONE. One CANNOT BE one or two WITHOUT THAT WHICH REFLECTION FORCES.
 WHEN WE ADD “ZID” THUS CREATING GRAVITY FORCE and the WEAKER “NEGATIVE” FORCE and the STRONGER “POSITIVE” FORCE – WE HAVE TIME AND SPACE in place.
 CONCEPTION OF TIME BEYOND THE BEYOND
COPYRIGHT TJ Morris tm ACIR sm – All RIGHTS RESERVED.
 “TJ” IS THE BEGINNING OF THE BEYOND OUTSIDE OF THE OMNIVERSE.
 TJ IS THE MOTHER OF TIME CREATED FROM THE ONE CHAOS. TJ is the SYMBOL for the ONE as T and the MIRROR REFLECTION IN TIME is J.
 THE “ALL” IS ONE AND THE ONE IS ALL! IT WAS NOT AN ACCIDENT TO CREATE THE OUTER FROM THE INNER. THE “T” IS MASCULINE and the “J” is FEMININE.
 WE THEREBY ANSWER TO OUR INNER AND OUTER GOD AND GODDESS.
 WE ARE THEN LURED OUT OF THE ONE AND TWO TO BECOME THE THREE or CHILD!
 IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD and the WORD was without FORM. THE ONE WORD CREATED OUTER MIRROR OF TIME AND REFLECTION.
 BEGINNING BEYOND TJ
Daughter of GOD and GODDESS
THE ONE became the TWO, which created the THREE who MARRIED and BECAME FIVE who then had a child MAKING EIGHT in EXISTENCE.
 FINAL ONE THE BEGINNING AND BEYOND IS THAT WHICH LIES BEYOND the EIGHT (8)
 8 is infinity
 INIFINITY on its SIDE is a SYMBOL.
 On Thursday, June 17, 2011, I realized finally figured out how to get my Books published with no out of pocket money and only my computer.
 But then my husband who wanted his books published too had a sister who was like my mother who had passed away on May 4, 2011 and left her legacy as a writer with her book to publish to me. I inherited her writing skills and she always wanted published and she finally had her book published by her grandson and then I took it and added the editing and created an Ebook for her as a published book with an ISBN from lulu.com.
This is the history of how I came to be. Mother explained to me that the “KINDLE” ebooks was the way to go and she wanted me to get her book on EBOOKS for KINDLE!
 So, mother left me with this to do when she left this world.
 Now, I have to go to AMAZON and find the Digital Ebook and learn the programming skills I need to be a publisher.
 I am now TJ Morris on Amazon and have a publisher code as such. Now, I have to learn to enter the template and format their way into the “Kindle Direct Publishing” world and explain it to my husband and his sister who are both published authors and want to enter the EBOOK world but still want a hard copy of their books.
 SO, in order to do what they need without costing me $ money and only my LABOR and LEARNING “HOW TO” PUBLISH myself I must use the “BRAIN TRAINING”.
 WE MAKE OUR “POTENTIAL”
Infinity squared where everything comes together in the BEYOND.
 INFINITY then becomes SQUARED which IS THE POWER TO THE PEOPLE.
SYNERGY CONNECTION
 FATHER TIME CHAOS – MOTHER OMNI FROM CHAOS
By: Theresa Janette Thurmond Thomas Morris
1, 2,3,5,8
 CHAOS – ORIGIN FOR THE TREE OF LIFE – AND MOTHER GAEA
 METIS and THETIS or MOTHER and FATHER of WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE
 Thoughts and Inspiration received as a Channel out of our Energy Chaos. We channel the essence for our soul derived out of the origin we call chaos. From chaos is our origin form space of the “ALL”. I believe in the ALL for ASCENSION philosophy that is the Mother of METIS or WISDOM. We should all seek ENLIGHTENMENT through the power of exploration of our inner and outer EXISTENCE. IF a Father marries, a Mother’s Daughter is an Age-old riddle. The Father is the son’s MOTHER, which was twofold the origin of the original creation of the one before the split into self-doubt of male and female array of the animistic of inner demons and human frailty here that was created from thought. Thought has been handed down from generation to generation in Folklife because if offer protection of experience from generation to generation throughout time and history. When we search back in time, we are Time Travelers. When we search forward into the future, we are Time Travelers. The path I lead has something for everyone. I am simply a CHANNEL of the ORIGIN of TIME designed to make life good. Is it defiance against chaos the origin of GOD? God Chaos was the ORIGIN of the ONE, which is “ALL”. We all have our GOD, which are both MAKERS of MALE AND FEMALE the one became defiant and desired companionship from inner self to enter the outer self, which became the array and archetypes we use to date. One that EXISTS has REFLECTION of the MIRRORED SELF. WE ALL HAVE AN INNER AND OUTER UNIVERSE. Using the SENSES, we seek STIMULATION from the OUTER for the INNER as COMPANIONSHIP from the SOLACE of the “ONE”. TJ
“KNOW THYSELF” As written in stone in the Temple of Delphi for the Delphi Goddesses who informed the Kings and Queens who knew of the Gods and Goddesses. There were twelve who ruled Supreme in Heaven and on Gaia. AS ABOVE SO BELOW – HOW MANY LIVES HAVE YOU HAD ON THIS PLANET – ARE YOU AT A LEVEL TO BE A GUIDE FOR OTHERS? – Was it planned for you to be a messenger or soldier in this life? A Scribe? 
About Physical Laws:
Over the years, one thing scientists have discovered is that nature is generally more complex than we give it credit for. The following laws of physics are considered fundamental, but many of them refer to idealized, closed systems, which are hard to obtain in the real world. In addition, some are altered slightly in different circumstances. The laws that Newton developed, for example, are modified by the findings of the theory of relativity, but they are still valid in most regular cases that you will run into.
Newton’s Three Laws of Motion:
Sir Isaac Newton developed the Three Laws of Motion, which describe basic rules about how the motion of physical objects changes. Newton was able to define the fundamental relationship between the acceleration of an object and the total forces acting upon it.
“Law” of Gravity:
Newton developed his “Law of Gravity” to explain the attractive force between a pair of masses. In the twentieth century, it became clear that this is not the whole story, as Einstein’s theory of general relativity has provided a more comprehensive explanation for the phenomenon of gravity. Still, Newton’s law of gravity is an accurate low-energy approximation that works for most of the cases that you will explore in physics.
Conservation of Mass-Energy:
The total energy in a closed or isolated system is constant, no matter what happens. Another law stated that the mass in an isolated system is constant. When Einstein discovered the relationship E=mc2 (in other words that mass was a manifestation of energy) the law was said to refer to the conservation of mass-energy. The total of both mass and energy is retained, although some may change forms. The ultimate example of this is a nuclear explosion, where mass transforms into energy.
Conservation of Momentum:
The total momentum in a closed or isolated system remains constant. An alternative of this is the law of conservation of angular momentum.
Laws of Thermodynamics:
The laws of thermodynamics are actually specific manifestations of the law of conservation of mass-energy as it relates to thermodynamic processes.
The zeroeth law of thermodynamics makes the notion of temperature possible.
The first law of thermodynamics demonstrates the relationship between internal energy, added heat, and work within a system.
The second law of thermodynamics relates to the natural flow of heat within a closed system.
The third law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible to create a thermodynamic process, which is perfectly efficient.
Electrostatic Laws:
Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law are formulations of the relationship between electrically charged particles to create electrostatic force and electrostatic fields. The formulas, it turns out, parallel the laws of universal gravitation in structure. There also exist similar laws relating to magnetism and electromagnetism as a whole.
Invariance of the Speed of Light:
Einstein’s major insight, which led him to the Theory of Relativity, was the realization that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and is not measured differently for observers in different inertial frames of reference, unlike all other forms of motion. Some theoretical physicists have conjectured different variable speed of light (VSL) possibilities, but these are highly speculative. Most physicists believe that Einstein was right and the speed of light is constant.
Modern Physics & Physical Laws:
In the realm of relativity and quantum mechanics, scientists have found that these laws still apply, although their interpretation requires some refinement to be applied, resulting in fields such as quantum electronics and quantum gravity. Care should be taken in applying them in these situations.
Classical Laws of Physics
Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
Newton’s Law of Gravity
Modern Laws of Physics
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
Quantum Physics: An Overview
Energy Conservation Laws of Physics
Laws of Thermodynamics
Related Articles
Law of Chemistry – Summary of Major Chemistry Laws
First Law of Thermodynamics – explanation of the first law of thermodynamic…
Thermodynamics – Overview of Thermodynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics – introduction to the laws of thermodynamics
Law of Gravity – introduction to Newton’s law of gravity
 LAW OF ABUNDANCE
100%
 We get 67% and 33% is divided between church and state of the Commonwealth.
 How the LAW OF “TJ” (8) applies.
 We take 1 = 100%
WE take 2 – 50%
WE CREATE CHILD
Given to Recreation = 33 1/3 %
 70% of the DIGITAL MEDIA of E-books is all that the AUTHOR creator may receive.
 From the 70% The AGENT PUBLISHER keeps 20%.
 Each Author is responsible for their own income tax.
 Thereby leaving 50% of Original Sale Price of BOOK for the AUTHOR.
KEYS TO THE KINGDOM:
 I thought I had been given the Key of Knowledge on Thursday only to find out it opened the Key it was the KEY TO the Wisdom Library. TJ
 ASCENSION CENTER ORG
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris” “If you are ready? Please read universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and Omniverse before higher levels in the Ascension Center. Birth-life-death as body-mind-spirit. Leave a trail. Love and Light. TJ – Individualize and Minimize the Distortion of alternate life sources.
http://www.ufodigest.com/article/keys-kingdom-laws-physics-and-beyond-metaphysics

Keys to the Kingdom – Laws of Physics and Beyond – Metaphysics | UFO Digest provides video proof ofwww.ufodigest.comUFO Digest is the creation of Dirk Vander Ploeg. It is a community of UFO and Paranormal enthusiasts including artists, authors, cartoonists, photographers, UFO investigators, videographers and writers and the just curious. Experts and everyday readers share opinions about the insightful articles for Lighworkers, Lightbearers, Truthseekers, Mystics, Oracles, Psychics, Prophets, Prophetesses, Sages, Seers, Shaman, Wizards, Wiccans, Scientists, Transpersonal Psychologists, artists, crafters, educators, folklorists, historians, cosmologists, metaphysicians, producers, writers, authors, “KNOW THYSELF”

OTHER ARTICLES on UFO Digest in Canada and available still in archives on the Internet at http://ufodigest.com. Download them at will and archive as you allow.

Knowing in 2014 with TJ Morris ACO and ET Contact

  
   

KNOWING EVERTHING

By: Theresa J Thurmond Morris aka TJ Morris ET Contactee on TJMorris ET Radio in the UFO Field and Social Paranormal Field. ACO Culture Club, Anew News.com, TheresaJMorris.com,TheresaJMorris.org,
TJMorris.TV, TJMorrisET.com

Alien ET & UFO Community Ascension Age – Alphaverse & Omegaverse Cosmos Deities

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Throughout the centuries, we have been struggling to understand the true nature of our Earthly reality. Ancient myths and some unbelievable spiritual… Cosmic Extraterrestrial Sentient Intelligent Beings
A Lesson of an ET on Earth
By: Theresa J Thurmond Morris aka TJ Morris ACO LLC in KY USA
We are they who are enjoying a life on planet earth together. We are they who are loved from above and below and from all around us in plain sight. We have our senses that allow us to become alive when we enjoy the gifts of light that are the life essence which keeps us alive and well on planet earth. We are the world, we are the children, we are the ones who make a better life so let’s start living. For those who desire to know those who come and go from this planet in their own ways one must first recognize they too can come and go and make room in what we call the acceptance of others and all things which are in the cosmos.
There are reasons we are all here together and just like science have become the word of the century with intelligent information as the power of knowledge in neutrons and protons of the atom and how all things consist of essence which is energy which moves beyond space and time as we perceive it to be.
We live in a place that we call matter which has taken many billions of what we call earth years in time which simply means how many days does it take for our planet to rotate around our sun. The number we have decided to agree to use is 365 days in a year. We relate to numbers as a way to share information that we can all agree on to allow us to form order in an otherwise chaotic world in which we understand that not one of us on earth created but we know we did arrive on this planet.
We must now learn to use that which was accepted in our own cultural traditions in the knowing that we were taught from the time we were born with using our senses which is part of the DIVINE KNOWING COSMOS. We share the UNIVERSAL DIVINE ORDER that is inside us all as a microcosm ever knowing and being the observer inside us all. The body is the vessel for which we all subscribe too knowing we all are encased inside a physical body.
We have all decided to be here now in the place in space we call home or at least for now our own home planet as we live and breathe here we decide what is freewill from inside each of us and also we decide what is a citizen in the community at various levels, planes and stages in life. Here we have a body-mind-spirit sharing the birth-life-death process together. Much of our freewill has to do with where we choose to be on earth and we as adults have decided that while our new borns come to this planet they should remain in the care of adults until the age of eighteen years on earth. This is the age that one can display their talents and grow towards their years as a young adult through the age of twenty-one years. At this time we decide to continue our education for purposes of contributing as a professional in business, academics, or skills or trade and commerce for the soul purpose of existence.
We are all here to grow and maintain as is all life on earth including all plant, animal, mineral, and mammal. The entire cosmos has many planets in places such as this one we call a solar system and there are those who come and go that are visiting as explorers in the cosmos from one such solar system in another galaxy. We relate to our own home planet in this solar system as one area on the outer arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.
What I have learned in my life while on this planet has not been enough but I know that I have been blessed with memories and experiences that allow me to know of another home place in space that we refer to as the Andromeda Galaxy. This is another place where we can become known in space as a neighbor and yet this is one of the places in space that I have learned in this lifetime that is also my home.
Being that I have had many experiences in life I learned that I could control some parts of the energy inside of me to learn to obtain knowledge that would take me to other parts of the world. I learned that even though I was born into a physical body and had a point of origin on this planet as my touch down point as my place of birth that as I became educated by the adults around me including parents, clergy, teachers, friends, relatives, and family including my extended spiritual family that I was destined to know and do more.
I learned that we are all on a spiritual path which is our chosen quest to find our way back to that which is the all-knowing and all-seeing which is the best way I can describe what we all regard as the cosmic mind or universal mind or critical mass mind in which we all are a part.
We are all a part of something much greater than this microcosm spark of life that wants to live and breathe on the planet in order to obtain more understanding, of which we are, what we are, why we are here, and where we will go when we leave here. We have all experienced pain and suffering while here even if it is only to lose a pet or a loved one. We know as children that which will cause us to fall as we learn about gravity and how we must first learn to crawl or scoot before we stand and then take our first step. Something inside us that are “US” is that which we become as the “I” in the “WE”. We know that as we perform our choices in life to move from one point to another that there is something inside us we know that is connected to us which urges us forward into self-discovery. We learn about that which allows us to see, taste, smell, hear, touch, and feel as we discover our six senses. We learn that feeling things causes emotions and some are in our autonomic response system with our inner workings as our nervous system. We learn how to make sounds that are pleasant and some which are not so much when having a conversation with another of our own kind as humans. We learn about what makes plants and trees grow and that without nutrients such as food and water that it appears to us that life will end at some point in time and that things come and go and everything happens in time.
We learn that just as we were born that we must live and that we all must die sooner or later and not always at a convenient time to others therefore we learn how to connect for a certain season in time to move forward and to become co-creators around the life we co-create.
Life can be lonely on earth if we make it that way as most anyone born at least has one person with them their mother who gives life or so it seems.  This has been what made us respect our nature and we even call our mother a natural being and our nature around us that we can experience Mother Nature. There is so much to learn that Mother Nature creates that we have decided that she is alive and well and is planet earth and all things that live upon the earth.
We have decided that outside of Mother Nature is the Father God which is all things outside of Mother Nature and yet we are told that he is also inside our Mother Earth and Mother Nature and inside us all  and that “God is ALL, God is everything.”
Therefore as I became an adult having had many experiences in this world with life and death and near death experiences I learned about out of body experiences and I began looking for this Mother Nature and Father God in everyone and in everything. I kept what we call an “Open Mind” which simply means I did not connect to anything but simply observed others and all things outside of my own body mind physical which was not in my control. In other words I learned to work to maintain and grow and to become a provider for myself and as a young mother I learned to give life to four daughters who I learned to provide for outside of my own existence. The lessons learned were with others inside training my mind for the spiritual path of what appeared right to others we call citizens and brothers and sisters in the Christian Church of which I was born. I was born in the church and had proof as I grew up in a baby book of where I attended church, where I was christened and where my relatives all lived and worked in Monroe and West Monroe, Louisiana in the United States of America. This was where I was born, where I went to school, joined Brownies and Girl Scouts and learned about how others expected me to prepare for being an adult and how I could contribute to society as a citizen.
Being a citizen on earth was taught to me in a set of rules of order. I learned them well and I cherish the days when I was young and went to school with my class mates who turned out to be my best friends after looking back at my life on earth. I later joined the United States Navy and I learned to have friends and I learned about team work and how to get things done together working for a reason, a cause, and for God and Country.  I am married now to a man who spent what he calls the best years of his life in military service. Tom spent his years from 1980 through 1993 the same time I was in service or preparing for service in and out of uniform. We both learned that we were important enough to this place we called earth to serve the greatest place to be born on earth which was called America and the United States of America was what we called our citizenship when we travelled around the world. We were proud Americans and we got to travel and see the world and other countries and how other people who were not born in America lived. We are lucky to have found each other.
What comes to be known as extraterrestrial companionship is what we learned about while we served some time on earth. This was because we grew and were shaped into the citizens of earth who would know about and prepare the way for the future way of being on earth in what is now called the Ascension Age. We did not come up with the name of the era in time of cosmology which was taught about as the Age of Aquarius in the New Age Community however, we lived it and became a part of something we were told to usher in as the new age of enlightenment and some call the golden age of enlightenment. It is about knowing that we ascend from this one vessel we call a physical body and that we are more than just this one life.
We are immortal beings and the Ascension Age is to remind us of all that we are a part of that is outside of our own mortal body-mind-spirit experiencing the birth-life-process together. We are a part of each other and someday when we leave this place, this plane of reality or so it seems to us now, we have another place and plane to go to or to ascend too. I had to learn what the word Ascension actually meant in the way of the spirit behind the word which is the work we do while on this planet. We are all about the ascension of our spirit which learns to ride the particles and waves that is the vast ocean of essence that is not held bound by that which seems fixed as neutrons and protons in the atomic age of humankind. We are more than science and more than theology and philosophy. We are that which is both the microcosm and the macrocosm and the way and the truth while the light is the way that our essence will go when we leave this world and blend once again into that which has sent us here as part of the higher levels and planes in the dimensions which exist in what we call the universe.
The universal mind is that where all essence of knowledge is kept we call the Akashic Field or A Field in Science and it is presently called the Theory of Everything. The truth is that everyone and everything is connected to that which is what we call “God”. The origin of the divine expansion of our own minds and conscience and memories as the divine essence that records all experiences in our own part of being something much greater in the immortal cosmos for we are all observed while here on earth by those above we call the “Watchers” the “Angels” the “Aliens”, the immortal beings, and there is a cosmic mystical experience that everyone can find that is a part of the miracle of birth and life which comes and goes from this planet. We are they which have older elders in this vast universal order and we have observed and been observed.
We are all a part of the whole and yet there is the starts and stops in energy and we all have a being and a shadow being which makes us whole and who we are with that still small voice inside us all that guides us. Some speak of ego, id, and super ego or our conscious, sub-conscious, and super conscious as we are all observing what we share in common. We see and observe what we are a part of and if we are contributing to being a part of the place in space that requires us to stop and live in a certain place or if we must go and be a part of the flow.
The universal flow is only a part of the inner macrocosm which reaches outside that which we know of as communication in mass and matter. There is matter, dark matter, and anti-matter and the physical properties we look for in space and time as dimensions deals with that which we cannot see, hear, feel, touch, taste, or smell with our human senses but at the atomic level which we are structured to know and understand in science is all a part of the whole inside the flux of anti-matter which we now call free energy.
If we want all people to have health and prosperity in this world we can do this together and make the entire planet able to take care as in food, clothing, shelter, and maintain a balance giving everyone a place, a part, a reason for being, and a purpose which we all share with that we call the divine. The divine existence in the cosmos is the way of being a citizen of the universe. We now share that the Ascension Age is the process we can also call the Cathari Gnosis which is about the journey and not the destination. Always be striving to obtain that which places one in the best position to moved forward and one can be a part of a family and still be able to stop and go and come to a point that the mind is always expanding and learning and that we are born to be travelers and explorers in this macrocosm we call the cosmos.
We each learn at our own pace no matter where we are born, live, and die. The fact that we are all here to bring order to chaos and to take with us that which is observed with our senses makes us a citizen of the cosmos and those who return to another realm. Just as this written article shares some personal knowledge of me and my husband I know that we are companions to others above whom we have met in this lifetime that can come and go as they please from this planet. This knowledge is granted to know before we were chosen to be here now and share this knowledge although the outcome is unpredictable as to how it will affect others in this world. I have to believe I am divinely connected and guided by the divine force we call “GOD” on earth because our ancestors programmed this thought throughout time from what their elders and parents taught them to believe. It is known that there are things that we cannot do and bringing back life to a human or animal once gone in the past was not possible but as we agree to learn more and strive for cures for life in medicine and in our neuro science we shall learn the truth about the entire reason for making life exist and not losing the truth of essence in us all. The truth is that it takes more than our own ego to live and that there is something inside us all we all can relate too and that is the spark of life which keeps us alive until we die. That part of us that is inside us all that is separate from our own conscience mind and memories that we record is the observer. The fact is that we are dual beings. We are all that which is here now and that which is another part here and there at the same time which is now proven in science.
The fact that there are quantum elements in us all in everything that exists is now the new exploration in this world and the time we claim on earth with that of the divine that has always been that we know as “GOD”. The majority of our humanoid species in one way or another still believes in all that exists as nature that we cannot divine or define as our own creation.
That which is in between our own inner knowing and our own being and that which is in everything that exist both inside and outside of us is our dual existence with a higher power a divine power of knowing that for lack of better words in the working world we refer to as the divine presence in everything is commonly known as the creator of all things which is called both God Father and God Mother. The reason being that we cannot have a reality without both in this dual world we all co-created in some place in the past which comes back and returns to various levels and planes in the realms of existence we now study as a cause of dimensions in the expansions of our own minds, our observable existence, and that which is always forever expanding outwardly. We know that we are all similar as the humanoid species. We all share a common trait that we call a body-mind-spirit experience of the birth-life-death process.
This is the miracle of being who we are at this point and time in space together while we learn about the universe inside the multi-verse, inside the metaverse, inside the xenoverse, inside the omniverse, birthed by both the Alphaverse and the Omegaverse. The presence of the seven levels as the seven heavens in our belief system that is the key to our critical mass mind of the Akashic Field allows us to meet lesser gods as deities from one time or another when we are ready to expand and when it is time for us to know. Those who know have known before and remember. Memories are now a part of the spiritual path to the new life as a whole cosmic sentient intelligent being. What we take with us as our memories is who we are in our own way of thinking, beings, doing, and knowing. Think on these things that through me have been known as the knowing and the Gnosis of the Ascension Age. The ET in me is the ET in you.
 MULTIPLE REALITIES AND THE MEN-IN-BLACK
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Home » Alien ET & UFO Community Ascension Age – Alphaverse & Omegaverse Cosmos Deities
Alien ET & UFO Community Ascension Age – Alphaverse & Omegaverse Cosmos Deities
Theresa J. Thurmond Morris. I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Deities also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we?  They are: Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse, and Omegaverse.
ALPHA & OMEGA SYNERGY ENERGY FOR OUR ASCENSION AGE (Golden Age Cosmology)
ACE Folklife is about the “Common Folk” of the world.
 Some may say in today’s time, OMG WWJD?
We all are experiencing our past, present, future as the IMMORTALS of our SOULS!
Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth.
Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who desire to know, the Golden Age of Cosmology is shared with the ACE Folklife common folk of the world.
One may have noticed that the “COMMON FOLK” are those who are in the streets these days uniting for common causes. It is said that there are only 10% classed as the wealthiest in the world while the other 90% is not. Does that mean that there is no middle ground for the middle class?
We share the planet as humanoid sentient intelligent beings and we are all considered one species. Why is it that there has been allowed in the past the corporations with their investors to believe that their CEO should make 550 times that of the common employee? It is not fair and there has to be some changes made in the world of corporate power and greed.
We believe in the social entrepreneurs of the social networks. We also know that it is entrepreneurs of the world that learn to find their passion, go out to create a better world with products and services, find their teams and groups to work on their new projects to be called corporations then go out and find their investors as angels for their investment capital. This is the way it has always been since the world decided to revolve around corporations and then came the stock markets.
Now, we can share the future Ascension Age as the Golden Age of Cosmology and the NEW AGE ACE FOLKLIFE will share our cultural refinements that include the changes to be made in politics and religions. We are seeing a major change among the common folk all over the world.  So, to those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger. I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree.
There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!
We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”. (Reason being many files are archived or removed or simply cease to exist in cyberspace.)
 We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS” – Ascension Center Organization teachers share the awakened awareness of the continuous process of the expansion of our souls creations. We are eternal essence. Theresa (Tara) J. Thurmond Morris – Founder of Ascension, ET Spirit, TJ
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps. I am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
It is time we all gravitate toward our other selves as real-time Avatars in Cyberspace in the WEB online. We are all now realizing we are much more than our physical selves. We can create our thoughts into websites and blogs in space that is electronically engineered in cyberspace that we call the Web on the Internet online. Things are changing and so are we.
Please READ the FOLLOWING in its entirety in order to understand more about the PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE of all of us!
That which claims to be both politics and religion is changing in this world and we the people as the common folk are the reason. We can see that the world we live that includes television and the entertainment media is changing along with us. We have interests and now the Internet is recording our interests and our involvement with our Internet is now being archived not only as common groups with similar interests but as individuals. This is also done in space by those we call “ALIENS” and “ET”.
GET READY FOR THE ASCENSION AGE!
THE COSMOS
“I am that I AM” is a famous saying. We can all say and know that as the God Particle Energy in each and every one of us. However, can we all agree that there is an outside force that flows inside of us all as that which is also called the “I AM”?
Alpha and Omega in Greek is the same as in English saying A and Z in the literal translation of thought and the way we think and surmise on earth. However, we are now learning to accept the new age we call the “ASCENSION AGE” in which we call our way of knowing and becoming awake and aware of our own “Mortality”. Just as Steven Jobs passed on or died at the young “Babyboomer” age of 56 years, this has left us all confronting our own “Mortality” and “Immortality”.—
For the biography, see Steve Jobs (biography). – Photo supplied on Wikipedia.
Steve Jobs
Shoulder-high portrait of smiling man in his fifties wearing a black turtle neck shirt with a day-old beard holding a phone facing the viewer in his left hand
Jobs holding a white iPhone 4 at Worldwide Developers Conference 2010
Born      Steven Paul Jobs
February 24, 1955 San Francisco, California, U.S.
Died       October 5, 2011 (aged 56)
Palo Alto, California, U.S.
Cause of death   Respiratory arrest/pancreatic cancer
Nationality          American
Alma mater         Reed College (one semester)
Occupation         Co-founder, Chairman and CEO,Apple Inc., CEO, Pixar,
Years active        1974–2011
Net worth           increase$7.0 billion (September 2011)
Board member of The Walt Disney Company, Apple Inc.
Religion               Buddhism
Spouse  Laurene Powell
(1991–2011, his death)
Children               4
Relatives              Mona Simpson (sister)
Signature            
Steven Paul “Steve” Jobs
(February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) Steve Jobs was an American business magnate and inventor. He was co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Apple Inc. Jobs was co-founder and previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of the Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney.
In the late 1970s, Jobs – along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, Mike Markkula and others – designed, developed, and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC’s mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa and, one year later, the Macintosh. After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs left Apple and founded NexT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher-education and business markets.
In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd, which was spun off asPixar Animation Studios. He was credited in Toy Story (1995) as an executive producer. He remained CEO and majority shareholder at 50.1 percent until its acquisition by The Walt Disney Company in 2006, making Jobs Disney’s largest individual shareholder at seven percent and a member of Disney’s Board of Directors.
Apple’s 1996 buyout of NeXT brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he served as its interim CEO from 1997, then becoming permanent CEO from 2000 onwards, spearheading the advent of the iPod, iPhone and iPad.
From 2003, he fought an eight-year battle with cancer, and eventually resigned as CEO in August 2011, while on his third medical leave. He was then elected chairman of Apple’s board of directors.
On October 5, 2011, around 3:00 p.m., Jobs died at his home in Palo Alto, California, aged 56, six weeks after resigning as CEO of Apple. A copy of his death certificate indicated respiratory arrest as the immediate cause of death, with “metastatic  tumor” as the underlying cause. His occupation was listed as “entrepreneur” in the “high tech” business.
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ALPHA and OMEGA CREATOR DEITIES of the Alphaverse, and Omegaverse home to our own Omniverse
I have been impressed or inspired to share that which has come to me due to questions that I have been asked about our Creator Deities and the Omniverse in which we live.
The fact that I thought that I was not allowed to venture further our of my known conscious existence as that of the Omniverse has changed in the last week.
I should point out to my readers that if one challenges their minds to look back in the history of my writings on UFO Digest of which I am a contributing syndicated columnist one will find a history of how I have grown in my own particles and waves flux and flows.
I am very happy to report that I now have the awakened awareness that we have that of which I have known in the furthest solar core of my own soul as the Alpha and Omega.
The Alphaverse and Omegaverse to show those who are only into the physical reality of science that there can be seven (7) levels and dimensions to our souls eternal source and life force we presently address as energy and essence.
Our energy and essence is expressed in this lifetime as our SPIRIT!
We have learned that we all share something in common besides our own physical makeup as humanoids with a head, trunk, and limbs. We have a brain that allows us to think for ourselves. Inside our brain and inside our mind also exists our own awareness of life that we call our conscious awareness of the fact that we are alive.
Some of us are only thinking about that which we can see, feel, touch, taste, hear, and smell with what we are told are our five (5) senses.
We now know that our emotional state of being with our nervous system in tact allows us to also understand and react to the outside stimulus we encounter on a daily basis.
It has now come to the attention of this one person also known as a humanoid sentient intelligent being that we are much, much more than what we perceive. We are all the creations that are here to explore our way back to the creator deities of both Alpha and Omega.
Alpha is the male energy and Omega is the female energy that we are all created with and sent in tachyon energy as the strongest force that is now not understood.
The Alpha wraps around the Omniverse. The Omega is the entire womb of that which we call Alphaverse and Omniverse in one manner of thinking in the Physical Cosmology.
In the Religious Cosmology the Alphaverse is the outer creation of the Omniverse, as well as, the Omega is the outer creation of the Omniverse.
We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other. Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything.
(The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today program this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery
- it would completely review our vision of nature.’)
One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.
 The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe.
 (Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes…) – Also refer to wikipedia for various dictionary explanations of words.
 No one being  can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids?
 Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed.
 We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.
Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity. We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth. The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!”
CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain:
the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background
the large scale structure of galaxy clusters
the distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium
the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae
It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena.
Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology
(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)
In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion.
The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics).
 Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
 What is the origin of the Universe?
What is its first cause?
Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe?
Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)
Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose?
How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos?
Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?
Creator Deity
A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.
Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .
Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.)
Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.
For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws.
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory,astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.
History of physical cosmology.
(See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists) Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation.
In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth.
However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the red shift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance. This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables.
Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.
Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang.
These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era.
The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).
Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy] to account for certain cosmological observations. One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).
There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the red shift effect. This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion.
History of the Universe
See also: Timeline of the Big Bang
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM model.
Equations of motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.
The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is
1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.
Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth.
Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics.
This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM  model it will continue expanding forever.
(Areas of study for those interested.)
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.
The very early universe
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found. These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and in homogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory.
Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles.
Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed.
This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big bang nucleosynthesis
Main article: Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produceddeuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight in homogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.
Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles: Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology
Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.
Dark matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.
Dark energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed.
Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation. Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory.
The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry
Cosmologists also study:
Whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
the GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies
the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See also
Physics portal
String cosmology
Physical ontology
List of cosmologists
References
^ For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.
^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006
^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”
^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.
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Polytheism
In polytheistic creation myths, the world often comes into being organically, e.g. sprouting from a primal seed, sexually, by miraculous birth(sometimes by parthenogenesis), by hierosgamos, violently, by the slaying of a primeval monster, or artificially, by a divine demiurge or “craftsman”. Sometimes, a god is involved, wittingly or unwittingly, in bringing about creation. Examples include:
African contexts:
Mbombo of Bakuba mythology, who vomited out the world upon feeling a stomach ache;
Egyptian mythology
Atum in Ennead, whose semen becomes the primal components of the universe
Ptah creating the universe by speaking
Unkulunkulu in Zulu mythology
American contexts:
Nanabozho (Great Rabbit,) Ojibway deity, a shape-shifter and a cocreator of the world.
The goddess Coatlique in Aztec mythology;
Viracocha in Inca mythology;
A trickster deity in the form of a Raven in Inuit mythology;
Asian contexts:
El or the Elohim of Canaanite mythology (see Genesis creation myth)
Esege Malan in Mongolian mythology, king of the skies
Kamuy in Ainu mythology, who built the world on the back of a trout;
Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology, who churned the ocean with a spear, creating the islands of Japan
Marduk killing Tiamat in the Babylonian Enuma Elish
Vishvakarman in Vedic mythology, responsible for the creation of the universe (while in later Puranic period, Brahma, Vishnu and Shivaare for creation, maintenance and destruction, respectively)
European contexts:
The sons of Borr slaying the primeval giant Ymir in Norse mythology
Rod in Slavic mythology.
Oceanic contexts:
Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother in Maori mythology
Platonic demiurge
Main article: demiurgeFurther information: Neoplatonism and Gnosticism and Great Architect of the Universe
Plato, in his dialogue Timaeus, describes a creation myth involving a being called the demiurge (“craftsman”). This concept was continued in Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. In Neoplatonism, the demiurge represents the second cause or dyad, after the monad. In Gnostic dualism, the demiurge is an imperfect spirit and possibly evil being, transcended by divine Fullness (Pleroma). Unlike the Judeo-Christian God, Plato’s demiurge is unable to create ex-nihilo.
Monolatrism
See also: Brahma
Monolatristic traditions would separate a secondary creator from the primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator. According to Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Brahma is the secondary creator and not the supreme. Vishnu is the primary creator. According to Vaishnavabelief Vishnu creates the basic universal shell and provides all the raw materials and also places the living entities within the material world, fulfilling their own independent will. Brahma works with the materials provided by Vishnu to actually create what are believed to be planets in Puranic terminology, and he supervises the population of them.
Monism
Main article: Monism
Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. Owen (1971: 65) claimed that:
“Pantheists are ‘monists’…they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it.”
Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza’s), not all pantheists are monists. Some are polytheists and some are pluralists; they believe that there are many things and kinds of things and many different kinds of value.
Not all monists are pantheists. Exclusive monists believe that the universe, the God of the pantheist, simply does not exist. In addition, monists can be Deists, pandeists, theists or panentheists; believing in a monotheistic God that is omnipotent and all-pervading, and both transcendent and immanent.
There are monist pantheists and panentheists in Hinduism(particularly in Advaita and Vishistadvaita respectively), Judaism (monistic panentheism is especially found in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy), in Christianity (especially among Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglicans) and in Islam (among the Sufis, especially the Bektashi).
In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of “the Absolute” from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism).
Buddhism
The Buddha explicitly rejects a creator, denies endorsing any views on creation and states that questions on the origin of the world are worthless.
Some gods in Buddhism have the view that they are creators of the world. For example, Baka Brahma. However, Buddha pointed out to them that they do not know the whole extent of the universe (he said they have no knowledge of some of the highest heavens), and further, the spiritual power of the Buddha was greater than the spiritual power of these gods who thought they created the world. One of the Suttasdealing with this subject is the Kevaddha Sutta.
The Buddha said (in DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta or The Net of Views) that their view of being the creator of the world is a misconception, and that these Brahma-gods actually have a cause which lead their origination (taking birth as a Brahma-god). Buddha even tells how the views concerning ‘creator gods’ originate in the world – through junior Brahma-gods (with a more limited life-span) who, on their passing away, get reborn as a human, and through practicing meditation are able to remember their previous life as a junior god to a Brahma god. Then, he starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta) starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta).
Hinduism
Main article: Hindu creationism
Hinduism includes a range of viewpoints about the origin of life, creationism and evolution. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically the god Brahma, from a Trimurti of three gods also including Vishnu and Shiva, is described as performing the act of creation, or more specifically of “propagating life within the universe” with the other two deities being responsible for preservation and destruction (of the universe) respectively.[ Most Hindu schools do not regard the scriptural creation myth as a literal truth, and often the creation stories themselves do not go into specific detail, thus leaving open the possibility of incorporating at least some theories in support of evolution. Some Hindus find support for, or foreshadowing of evolutionary ideas in scriptures, namely the Vedas.
 An exception to this acceptance is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), which includes several members who actively oppose “Darwinism” and the modern evolutionary synthesis.
Jainism
Main article: Jainism and non-creationism
Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents – soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion have always existed (a static universe similar to that of Epicureanism and steady state cosmological model). All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. It is not possible to create matter out of nothing and hence the sum total of matter in the universe remains the same (similar to law of conservation of mass). Similarly, the soul of each living being is unique and uncreated and has existed since beginningless time.
The Jain theory of causation holds that a cause and its effect are always identical in nature and therefore a conscious and immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Furthermore, according to the Jain concept of divinity, any soul who destroys its karmas and desires, achieves liberation. A soul who destroys all its passions and desires has no desire to interfere in the working of the universe. Moral rewards and sufferings are not the work of a divine being, but a result of an innate moral order in the cosmos; a self-regulating mechanism whereby the individual reaps the fruits of his own actions through the workings of the karmas.
Through the ages, Jain philosophers have adamantly rejected and opposed the concept of creator and omnipotent God and this has resulted in Jainism being labeled as nastika darsana or atheist philosophy by the rival religious philosophies. The theme of non-creationism and absence of omnipotent God and divine grace runs strongly in all the philosophical dimensions of Jainism, including its cosmology, karma,moksa and its moral code of conduct. Jainism asserts a religious and virtuous life is possible without the idea of a creator god.
Monotheism
Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism teach that creation is the origin of the universe by the action of God.
Among monotheists it has historically been most commonly believed that living things are God’s creations, and are not the result of a process inherent in originally non-living things, unless this process is designed, initiated, or directed by God; likewise, sentient and intelligentbeings are believed to be God’s creation, and did not arise through the development of living but non-sentient beings, except by the intervention of God.
Baha’i
Bahá’í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image of, by themselves. Therefore, human understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his Manifestations. In the Bahá’í religion God is often referred to by titles and attributes (e.g. the All-Powerful, or the All-Loving), and there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism.
Chinese Mythology
Pangu can be interpreted as another creator deity. In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos. However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of yin and yang became balanced and Pangu emerged (or woke up) from the egg. Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant with horns on his head (like the Greek Pan) and clad in furs. Pangu set about the task of creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and Pangu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Phoenix, and theDragon.
Shangdi is another creator deity, possibly prior to Pangu sharing concepts similar to abrahamic faiths.
After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, Pangu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind; his voice the thunder; left eye the sunand right eye the moon; his body became the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood formed rivers; his muscles the fertile lands; his facial hair the stars and milky way; his fur the bushes and forests; his bones the valuable minerals; his bone marrows sacred diamonds; his sweat fell as rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became human beings all over the world. The distance from Earth and Sky at the end of the 18,000 years would have been 65,700,000 feet, or over 12,443 miles.
The first writer to record the myth of Pangu was Xu Zheng  during the Three Kingdoms  period.
Christianity
See also: Christ the Logos
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing but by his word, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. Within this broad understanding, however, there are a number of views regarding exactly how this doctrine ought to be interpreted.
Some Christians, mainly evangelical Protestants, particularly Young Earth creationists and Old Earth creationists, interpret Genesis as a historical, accurate, and literal account of creation. Others, in contrast, may understand these to be, not statements of historic fact, but rather spiritual insights more vaguely defined.
While the synoptic gospels do not address the question of creation, the Gospel of John famously begins:
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being … And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth” <John 1:1-3 and 1:14>.
The Epistle to the Hebrews, a book of the New Testament, contains another reference to creation:
“For by faith we understand the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” <Hebrews 11:3>.
Thus, in Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the world ex nihilo.
The Catholic Church allows for either a literal or allegorical interpretation of Genesis, so as to allow for the possibility of Creation by means of an evolutionary process over great spans of time, otherwise known as theistic evolution. It believes that the creation of the world is a work of God through the Logos, the Word (idea, intelligence, reason and logic).
The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. In him
“all things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Surrounded by a pervasive culture of rationalism, relativism and secularism, the Catholic Church has asserted the primacy of reason inChristian Theology. In a 1999 lecture at the University of Paris, then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger said:
“The question is … whether reason, being a chance by-product of irrationality and floating in an ocean of irrationality, is ultimately just as meaningless; or whether the principle that represents the fundamental conviction of Christian faith and of its philosophy remains true: “In principio erat Verbum” — at the beginning of all things stands the creative power of reason. Now as then, Christian faith represents the choice in favor of the priority of reason and of rationality. [...] there is no ultimate demonstration that the basic choice involved in Christianity is correct. Yet, can reason really renounce its claim to the priority of what is rational over the irrational, the claim that the Logos is at the ultimate origin of things, without abolishing itself?””Even today, by reason of its choosing to assert the primacy of reason, Christianity remains “enlightened,” and I think that any enlightenment that cancels this choice must, contrary to all appearances, mean, not an evolution, but an involution, a shrinking, of enlightenment.”
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and others within Mormonism, believe that “the elements are eternal” (Doctrine & Covenants § 93:33), and that God (our Father in Heaven–the Creator, Sustainer, and Governor of the Universe)–organized or wrought the creation of the Earth through His Son, Jesus Christ (known as YHWH “Jehovah” of the Old Testament), Who was with Him in the beginning (John 1:1-2, 14): “And by the word of my power have I created them [i.e., the Earth and its many inhabitants], which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth” (Moses 1:32). God, the Father, had His Son fashion the eternal elements into the Earth upon which we live over the course of six creative periods that He called “days” (yom in Hebrew, Genesis 1:5)(note, however, that there is nothing to suggest that these six days were either immediately contiguous or of 24 hours duration (indeed, as to the latter, the data suggests that these “days” were rather longer)). “We will go down,” said Jehovah, “for there is space there, and we will take of these [already existing] materials, and we will make an earth whereon these [i.e., us] may dwell” (Abraham 3:24). But Latter-day Saint theology does not perceive God as the Creator of our Earth alone, but of countless worlds: “worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten” (Moses 1:33), ” By him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten sons and daughters unto God” (Doctrine & Covenants 76:24).
In short, the Creator is an architect and organizer of pre-existing matter and energy, who constructed our original Earth and other worlds out of this raw material according to the laws and principles He has decreed shall govern such things.
Creationism
Main article: Creationism
Christian fundamentalism in the USA since the 1930s has pursued Biblical literalist doctrines of “Creationism” as a counter-hypothesis opposing the scientific community, with concepts such as flood geology, creation science and intelligent design proposed as syntheses of Christian creation beliefs and scientific method.
Judaism
Further information: Genesis creation myth
Orthodox Judaism historically affirms that one incorporeal God (self-identified to Moses as Yahweh) is the creator of all things (many references available, see Job 38-41, for example), and that this same one created Adam and Eve personally (directly). They affirm that this Being is an indivisible one, incomparable to any created thing, and immutable.
Islam
Main article: Islamic creationism
According to Islam, God, known in Arabic as Allah, is the all-powerful and all-knowing Creator, Sustainer, Ordainer, and Judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid). God is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to tradition there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: “The best names”) each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God.
All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Compassionate” (al-rahman) and “the Merciful” (al-rahim).
Creation is seen as an act of divine choice and mercy, one with a grand purpose: “And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play.”Rather, the purpose of humanity is to be tested: “Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving; “Those who pass the test are rewarded with Paradise: “Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfillment of (the heart’s) desires;”.
According to the Islamic teachings, God exists above the heavens and the creation itself. The Qur’an mentions, “He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. “At the same time, God is unlike anything in creation:
“There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.”
Nobody can perceive God in totality:
“Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.”
God in Islam is not only majestic and sovereign, but also a personal God: “And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge).”
Allah commands the believers to constantly remember Him (“O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance”) and to invoke Him alone (“And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.”)
Islam teaches that God as referenced in the Qur’an is the only god and the same God worshipped by members of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity and Judaism. (29:46).
Sikhism
Main article: Sikh beliefs
One of the biggest responsibilities in Sikhism is to worship God as “The Creator”, termed Waheguru who is shapeless, timeless, and sightless, i.e., Nirankar, Akal, and Alakh Niranjan. The religion only takes after the belief in “One God for All” or Ik Onkar.
MYTHOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY also RELIGIOUS COSMOLOGY
A Religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition. Religious cosmologies usually include an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon.
Buddhism
Main article: Buddhist cosmology
In Buddhism, the universe comes into existence dependent upon the actions (karma) of its inhabitants. Buddhists posit neither an ultimate beginning or final end to the universe, but see the universe as something in flux, passing in and out of existence, parallel to an infinite number of other universes doing the same thing.
The Buddhist universe consists of a large number of worlds which correspond to different mental states, including passive states of trance, passionless states of purity, and lower states of desire, anger, and fear. The beings in these worlds are all coming into existence or being born, and passing out of existence into other states, or dying. A world comes into existence when the first being in it is born, and ceases to exist, as such, when the last being in it dies.
The universe of these worlds also is born and dies, with the death of the last being preceding a universal conflagration that destroys the physical structure of the worlds; then, after an interval, beings begin to be born again and the universe is once again built up. Other universes, however, also exist, and there are higher planes of existence which are never destroyed, though beings that live in them also come into and pass out of existence.
As well as a model of universal origins and destruction, Buddhist cosmology also functions as a model of the mind, with its thoughts coming into existence based on preceding thoughts, and being transformed into other thoughts and other states.
Hebrew Bible
Further information: Biblical cosmology and Genesis creation myth
The main Judeo-Christian religious text, the Bible, opens with a story of creation. The first two chapters of the Book of Genesis describe the creation of heaven and earth by God (called both Elohim and Yhvh) in six successive days.
First day: God creates light (“Let there be light!”)[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and “day” and “night” are named.
Second day: God creates a firmament (“Let a firmament be…!”)[Gen 1:6–7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named “heaven” (shamayim).
Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9–10]“earth” and “sea” are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).
Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14–15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made and the stars.
Fifth day: God commands the sea to “teem with living creatures”, and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20–21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.
Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command); He makes wild beasts, livestock and “every thing that creepeth upon the earth”.[Gen 1:24–25] He then creates humanity in His “image” and “likeness” (eighth command).[Gen 1:26–28] They are told to “be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it.” The totality of creation is described by God as “very good.”
Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day.[Gen 2:2]
Christianity:
See also: Biblical cosmology, Ex nihilo, and Creationism
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. In Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the worldex nihilo.
The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. In him
“all things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Mormon
Main article: Mormon cosmology
Mormon cosmology draws from Biblical cosmology, but has many unique elements provided by Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith, Jr.
According to Mormon cosmology, there was a pre-existence, better described as a pre-mortal life, in which human spirits were literal children of heavenly parents.
Though their spirits were created, the essential “intelligence” of these spirits is considered eternal, and without beginning. During this pre-existence, two plans were said to have been presented, one championed by Lucifer (Satan) that would have involved loss of moral agency, and another championed by God the Father. When his plan was not accepted, Lucifer is said to have rebelled and taken a third of the hosts of heaven with him to the earth to serve as tempters. According to a plan of salvation as described by God the Father, Jesus would create the earth, under the direction of God the Father, as a place where humanity would be tested. After the resurrection all men and women except spirits that followed Lucifer and the sons of perdition would be assigned one of three degrees of glory. Within the highest degree, the Celestial Kingdom, there are three divisions, and those in the highest of these divisions would become gods and goddesses through a process called exaltation or “eternal progression”. This would involve having spirit children and populating new worlds.
The Earth’s creation, according to Mormon scripture, was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter. The faith teaches that this earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and that there are many governing heavenly bodies, including a planet or star Kolob which is said to be nearest the throne of God. According to some Mormon sources, God the Father himself was once like a human, and lived on a planet with his own higher god.
Hindu
Main article: Hindu cosmology
The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.
The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: “Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. What was concealed? And where? And in whose protection?…Who really knows? Who can declare it? Whence was it born, and whence came this creation?
The devas were born later than this world’s creation, so who knows from where it came into existence? None can know from where creation has arisen, and whether he has or has not produced it. He who surveys it in the highest heavens, he alone knows-or perhaps does not know.” (Rig Veda 10. 129)
Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology.
Intermediate neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology.
We have the neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology.
The Rig Veda’s view of the cosmos also sees one true divine principle self-projecting as the divine word, Vaak, ‘birthing’ the cosmos that we know, from themonistic  Hiranyagarbha or Golden Womb.
The Hiranyagarbha is alternatively viewed as Brahma, the creator who was in turn created by God, or as God (Brahman) himself. The universe is considered to constantly expand since creation and disappear into a thin haze after billions of years.[citation needed] An alternate view is that the universe begins to contract after reaching its maximum expansion limits until it disappears into a fraction of a millimeter.
The creation begins anew after billions of years (Solar years) of non-existence.
The puranic view asserts that the universe is created, destroyed, and re-created in an eternally repetitive series of cycles. In Hindu cosmology, a universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named pralaya (Cataclysm), repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma’s lifespan. It must be noted that Brahma is the creator but not necessarily regarded as God in Hinduism. He is mostly regarded as a creation of God / Brahman.
We are currently believed to be in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 156 trillion years have elapsed since He was born as Brahma. After Brahma’s “death”, it is necessary that another 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Years) pass until a new Brahma is born and the whole creation begins anew. This process is repeated again and again, forever.
Brahma’s day is divided in one thousand cycles (Maha Yuga, or the Great Year).Maha Yuga, during which life, including the human race appears and then disappears, has 71 divisions, each made of 14 Manvantara (1000) years. Each Maha Yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years. Manvantara is Manu’s cycle, the one who gives birth and governs the human race.
Each Maha Yuga consists of a series of four shorter yugas, or ages.
The yugas get progressively worse from a moral point of view as one proceeds from one yuga to another. As a result, each yuga is of shorter duration than the age that preceded it. The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.
Space and time are considered to be maya (illusion). What looks like 100 years in the cosmos of Brahma could be thousands of years in other worlds, millions of years in some other worlds and 311 trillion and 40 billion years for our solar system and earth.
Islam
Main articles: Islamic cosmology and Sufi Cosmology
Islam preaches that God, or Allah, created the universe, including Earth’s physical environment and human beings. The highest goal is to visualize the cosmos as a book of symbols for meditation and contemplation for spiritual upliftment or as a prison from which the human soul must escape to attain true freedom in the spiritual journey to God. Islam elaborates on cosmology in many instances. A modern English translation of the Quran describes the creation of the universe as follows:”We have built the heaven with might, and We are Steadily Expanding it.”51:47
Earlier English translations like for example Ahmed Ali, The Noble Qur’an, Pickthal, Shakir and Yusuf Ali never specify the expansion as a process that is still going on so it seems to be an addition after the expansion of the universe became a generally accepted scientific fact.
Below here there are some other citations from the Quran on cosmology.
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” 21:30 Yusuf Ali translation
“The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfil it.” 21:104 Yusuf Ali translation
Jainism
Main article: Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having no beginning or an end.
 Jain textsdescribe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is narrow at the top, broad at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.
Mahapura’a of Acarya Jinasena is famous for this quote: “Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression.”
Taoism
Main articles: Chinese creation myth and Tian
The cosmology of Taoism beliefs is a complex mixture of different beliefs. There is a “primordial universe” Wuji (philosophy), and Hongjun Laozu, water or qi.
 It transformed into Taiji and multiplied into everything.
 The Pangu legend tells a formless chaos coalesced into acosmic egg. Pangu emerged (or woke up) and separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and theSky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. After Pangu died, he became everything.
See also
Bahá’í cosmology
Raelian cosmology
Zoroastrian cosmology
References:
^ CCC Search Result – Paragraph # 291
^ LDS Church (1995) (“Each [human] is a beloved spirit son or daughter of heavenly parents.”); LDS Church (1997, p. 11) (“Man, as a spirit, was begotten and born of heavenly parents, and reared to maturity in the eternal mansions of the Father.”).
^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2
^ “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogasastra of Acarya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani
^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogasastra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6
See also
Biblical cosmology
Brahma
Cosmogony
Cosmological argument
Cosmology
Dating Creation
Day-Age Creationism
Deism Existence
Gap Creationism
Great Spirit
Intelligent designer
Jainism and non-creationism
Old Earth Creationism
Tzimtzum
Young Earth Creationism
Alpha and Omega
The term Alpha and Omega comes from the phrase “I am the alpha and the omega” (Koiné Greek: an appellation of Jesus in the Book of Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13). In the Book of Revelation, it reads “I am the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.
”The first part of this phrase (“I am the Alpha and Omega”) is first found in Chapter 1 verse 8, and is found in every manuscript of Revelation that has 1v8. Several later manuscripts repeat “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11 too, but it does not receive support here from most of the oldest manuscripts, including the Alexandrine, Sinaitic, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus.
It is, therefore, omitted in some modern translations. Scholar Robert Young stated, with regards to “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11, that the “oldest MSS. omit” it.
Its meaning is found in the fact that alpha  and omega are respectively the first and last letters of the Classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet. This would be similar to referring to someone in English as the “A and Z”. Thus, twice when the title appears it is further clarified with the additional title “the beginning and the end” (21:6, 22:13).
Though many commentators and dictionaries apply this title both to God and to Christ, some secular sources argue otherwise.
 Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament (1974) claims: “It cannot be absolutely certain that the writer meant to refer to the Lord Jesus specifically here… There is no real incongruity in supposing, also, that the writer here meant to refer to God as such.” However, most Christian denominations teach that it does apply to Jesus and God as they are one; Revelation Chapter 22 has Jesus himself saying the words: “I am the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last”.
Therefore the letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples). The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crosses in precious metal have formed letters hanging in this way. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ’s head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the christogram used in Orthodox art.
This symbol was suggested by the Apocalypse, where many believe that Christ, as well as the Father, is “the First and the Last” (ii, 8); “the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (cf., xxii, 13; i, 8). Clement of Alexandria (2nd century, philosopher and commentator on pagan and Christian information) speaks of the Word as “the Alpha and the Omega of Whom alone the end becomes beginning, and ends again at the original beginning without any break” (Stromata, IV, 25). Tertullian (lawyer, theologian) also alludes to Christ as the Alpha and Omega (De Monogamiâ, v), and from Prudentius (Cathemer., ix, 10) we learn that in the fourth century the interpretation of the apocalyptic letters was still the same: “Alpha et Omega cognominatus, ipse fons et clausula, Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt, quaeque post futura sunt.” It was, however, in the monuments of early Christianity that the symbolic Alpha and Omega had their greatest vogue.
This phrase is interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus existed from eternity (as the second person of the Trinity), and will exist eternally. Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, signifying that God is “the beginning and the end,” or eternal. The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs.
The Alpha and Omega symbols are often combined with the cross, chi rho, or other Christian symbols.
Judaism
In Rabbinic literature, the word emet (meaning “truth”), one of the names of God in Judaism, has been interpreted as consisting of the first, middle and final letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Islam
The Qur’an gives al’Awwal meaning “The First” and al’Akhir , meaning “The Last” as two of the names of God: 57:3.
Babylonian cosmology
Babylonian literature (1900-1200 BC) Plurality of heavens and earths The Earth and Heavens are a “spatial whole, even one of round shape,” revolving around the “cult-place of the deity”[clarification needed] rather than the Earth,[6] and there is a plurality of heavens and earths.
Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology)
Hindu Rigveda(1700–1100 BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time The universe sustains for around 311,040,000,000,000 years, or 100 Years of Brahma. There is a smaller period of unmanifestation in around 4 billion years, that is, one Day of Brahma. The universe cycles between expansion and total collapse. After one cycle of the life of Brahma another universe follows for infinity, each of which exists for a time period of 311 trillion 40 billion years. It also speaks of an infinite number of universes at one given point of time. The Universe expanded from a concentrated form, a point called a Bindu.
The universe, as a living entity, is bound to the perpetual cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) & later
Epicurus Infinite in extent –
The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.
Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon andplanets revolve uniformly. The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.[8]
Stoic universe Stoics(300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe The Cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384-322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), added to the four Classical elements.
Aristarchean universe Aristarchus(circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun.
Seleucian universe Seleucus of Seleucia(circa 190 BC) Heliocentric Modifications to the Aristarchean universe, with the inclusion of the tide phenomenon to explain heliocentrism.
Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy(2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun.
Abrahamic universe Medieval philosophers (500-1200) Finite in time A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologianAlgazel.
Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer space beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes.
Maragha models Maragha school(1259–1528) Geocentric Various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection ofequant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favour of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kusçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi.
Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system.
Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) Heliocentric The geocentric Maragha model of Ibn al-Shatir adapted to meet the requirements of the ancient heliocentric Aristarchean universe in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
Tychonic system Tycho Brahe(1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model.
Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton(1642–1727) Static(evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.
Cartesian Vortexuniverse René Descartes
17th Century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant,Johann Lambert
18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled.
Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant
Albert Einstein1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to ?. In effect ? is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable.
De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter
1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. ? > 0 “Motion without matter.
” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation.
MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &
steady state
New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space.
k= +1 ; no ? Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1
Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).
Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolicexpanding space.
k= -1 ; no ? Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding
Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.
k= 0 ; ? = 0 Critical density Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.
BIG BANG THEORY = Only One Theory!
The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model
Georges Lemaître1927-29 Expansion
? > 0 ? > |Gravity| ? is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. ? is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)
Oscillating universe
(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model) Favored by Friedmann
1920s Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox.
Perpetual cycles of big Bang followed by the big Crunch.
Eddington Arthur Eddington1930 First Static
then Expands Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe. ? dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;
William H. McCrea, 1930s Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty. It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all co-moving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady- expanding  (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi,Thomas Gold1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. Exponential expansion.
Deceleration term q = -1.
Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.
Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxiesdivided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans;Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”
Cosmic inflation Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
MULTIVERSE THEORY
Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation
A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.
Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.
For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws.
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development ofAlbert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics.
Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory,astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.
Universal Disciplines
In recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang combined with cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5-13.9 billion) years ago.
Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.
Between the domains of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation.
Metaphysical Cosmology
Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exampled by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.”
Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.
A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept.
History of Physical Cosmology.
See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists
Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter.
This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance. This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables.
Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility wasFred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.
Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang.
These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era. The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).
Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy to account for certain cosmological observations. One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).
There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photonthat travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect.
This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost.
Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted.
However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time.
Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion.
History of the Universe
See also: Timeline of the Big Bang
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM model.
Equations of motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.
The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is
1 / H with
H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.
Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth. Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics. This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM model it will continue expanding forever.
Areas of study
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.
The very early universe
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found. These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smoothes out anisotropies and inhomogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory.
Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma raysproduced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big bang nucleosynthesis
Main article: Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produceddeuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances.
The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic microwave background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.
Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles: Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids.
Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies.
Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology
Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.
Dark matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.
Dark energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation. Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry
Cosmologists also study:
Whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
the GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See also:
Physics portal
String cosmology
Physical ontology
List of cosmologists
References:
^ For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.
^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006
^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”
^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.
Further reading
Popular
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.
Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.
Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.
Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.
Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.
Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8.
clic model Paul Steinhardt;Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;Paul Frampton 2007 Solution ofTolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy.
Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant;  (Lambda) is the cosmological constant.
Physical cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens.
The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.
With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies.
This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.
In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920. The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.
Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.
These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.
Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology
.”
(Source: Wikipedia)
Further reading
Popular
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.
Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.
Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.
Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.
Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.
Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8
See also:
Astronomy portal
Absolute time and space
Astrology
Astronomy
List of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
Taiji
Tao
Mahapurana (Jainism)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mahapurana is a major Jain text composed largely by Acharya Jinasena during the rule of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarshaand completed by his pupil Gunabhadra in the 9th century CE. The section composed by Gunabhadra is called “Uttarapurana”. The completed and edited text was released by Lokasena, pupil of Gunabhadra in a celebration at Bankapura in the court of Vira-Bankeyarasa in 898 CE. The first 42 Parvans of this text were written by Jinasena, while remaining 34 Parvans were composed by Gunabhara.
 This text gives an encyclopedic account of the Jain tradition.
—————-The text is widely quoted.
A widely used quote from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, page 140 is:
“Some foolish men declare that Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If god created the world, where was he before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is he now?”,
—————-
A number of Jain and non-Jain texts have been influenced by the Mahapurana. Mahapurana was the model for Saiva SiddhantaPeriyapuranam which gives biographies of the 63 individuals.
 More later…when it comes. Love and Light TJ

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Theresa J Morris is Author/Entrepreneur-Speaker – TJ Morris ET Radio Show Host. SEE TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club for Members.

Founding Director of the ACE Nonprofit Inc, and ACO Corp Press Club. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. Theresa also known as TJ Morris dba ACIR is an American who has had Close Encounters her entire life and has devoted her Life’s Work to sharing the future with support groups of Lightworkers and Truthseekers of the Ascension Age. Theresa began her research in the human potential movement after a NDE near death experience in May, 1958 and again January 27, 1974 and both times she experienced extraterrestrial intelligence beings she considered angels at the time. TJ has since changed how she believes in extraterrestrials based on UFO Sightings and ET Encounters and is now sharing her story with those who join her in her TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club. TJ Morris is the Talk Show Host of the TJ Morris ET Radio weekly. TJ has written several books including Roswell Encounters, Ascension Age, and Alien UFO Story by TJ. TJ is now working with various small business entrepreneurs to form an annual conference in AMERICA with those who support work in art, culture, education for the social changes and the new humanoid species as a supporter of a new spiritual science movement as a “Family of Kindred Spirits of the Social Paranormal Kind.” Besides joining the US Navy working as a government contractor and in uniform for 8 years, TJ’s professional background is as a Private, Legal, and Government investigator and then drove a truck coast to coast for 7 years. TJ refers to herself simply as an Author/ Entrepreneur. Theresa is the Ascension Universal Life Ministries Global Community Spiritual Leader.

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Theresa founder of ACE Nonprofit Inc as the ACE Metaphysical Institute and the Ascension Universal Life Church an Internet Online Ministries with a Radio Broadcast on

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Ascension Age is the Theme and Awakening Awareness of the Christ Consciousness and

faith in the Holy Spirit among those who share spirituality is that of whom she calls

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Theresa also known as TJ has shared her past life reincarnation essence of memories of one in the past called Green Tara and the Keeper of the Flame.

Theresa shares that she does not deny her past lives which are memories which she has found to be a real part of her in this lifetime. Theresa has died as a child at age of 7 years with infectious hepatitis A and was put on a kidney dialysis machine to clean her blood.

Theresa was so weak from this severe disease that she could barely talk, and could not walk and had to be carried for months until her strength returned. During this time Theresa had time to examine her life and searched for meaning while being visited by whom at the time she called Angels and now recognizes they were ET messengers.

Theresa died again with placenta prevea while giving birth to her fourth daughter whom she named Ginger Theresa Fay Parrish. It took months again for Theresa to find the strength to live, walk, and talk again.  Theresa once again as an adult had a change in life and had a chance to examine who she was, why she was here, and was reminded of her spiritual journey and that she would some day share her life with the global community.

Theresa has had a life of spiritual guidance by ET Messengers and feels after her last epiphany that she is doing her work under the category of spirituality as a minister and Pastor of the Ascension Universal Life Ministries online.

Theresa now shares her life’s past with others to ensure that the Ascension Age will be shared with others. Theresa is sharing with her spiritual team players who are interested

in sharing a life that is worth living and one which involves others energy essence that are good spiritual ascension sentient intelligent beings.

 

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MY LIFE OF NDE-OBE-ASTRAL TRAVEL-ET CONTACT BY TJ MORRIS PSYCHIC
By: Theresa J Morris
I am a web writer and am now sharing my more intimate details of what made me who I am the same and yet different than most people I came across in my lifetime. I have a mission in life and that is to share my story so that others will know that how I lived was more normal than many people realized in the time frame I was growing up. It’s much more normal I am told now however, I have not had time to research other’s lives or to use the Internet and do research on particular people who have had out of body or ET Contact like me.
I am now going to take the time to share my articles in more detail. I did write for the UFO Digest in Canada for Dirk Vander Ploeg from August 2007 through August 2012. I had websites of my own but it was writing on the UFO Digest that allowed me to become more known in the Alien ET UFO Community.
I began the Social Paranormal Magazine among many others to share all that I did write online in articles. I also have the American News Magazine and the Anew News Guide to share as a web writer.
This will be written in parts or articles as it is hard for me to sit down and talk about my own personal life. I have lived so long being told to not talk about my life that the intimate details and chronological order of what I would call an ordinary human experiencing extraordinary things.
TJ Morris ET Contactee, Author/Social Entrepreneur
Agent, Consultant, Organizer – Radio Show Host.
– Psychic – Empath-Precognitionist-Tarot Reader- Consciousness Spirit Researcher, Web Writer.
I AM TJ. I was born on planet Earth, also known as Gaia, and Sophia.
I am told in this incarnation I was born on December 26, 1951, 12:03 P.M. (Noon) in the St. Francis Hospital, in Monroe, Louisiana. I was the first child of good parents.
My parents named me Theresa Janette Thurmond. My mother’s name was Theresa Mae Bolton and my father’s name was Nathaniel Burton Thurmond Jr. My maternal grandmother was present and her name was Sara Esther Bolton.
I will not go into my genealogy now however; it is done and kept in places in cyberspace and by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in the USA.
I was told I was born in the church which was the First Baptist Church of the Southern Baptist Convention.
As a child I lived on South 3rd and South 4th Street right behind my grandmother who had bought a home at 1503 South 3rd St. Monroe, La. USA from the Air Force. The house was an officer’s home which apparently was built during the war. We had Selman Field in Monroe. I lived in a duplex for the enlisted behind her and down the street in two locations with my mother while my father was in the U.S. Army Reserves and worked at the Brown Paper Mill which was bought by Olin Mathieson Corporation.
I was the first child and had many adults in my life when I was born because my grandmother was something of a social butterfly in business and in clubs. She had many friends and my baby book was filled with cards and was signed by many adults who came to see me at the hospital when I was born.
I was much loved and my life on earth seemed very special. I was a happy child and no harm came to me and yet I had a special playmate which would appear and my mother could not see him. His name was Cleo not Leo. Now I know that many children have playmates but this one was teaching me how to do things with my mind and to learn things but did not want to be seen by my mother. I remember one episode one day when mother came to my room and I had the door shut. She startled me and I saw my small friend disappear.
To some they may call this a small ET being.
Mother came to tell me we were going somewhere in the car. I wanted my friend to go and I told mother he would disappear when she came in. I remember trying to make my mother let him go with us and she talked with me about this and she played like he could go with us. I climbed into the backseat of the car and she was talking to him like he was there but she could not see him. This was my first conscious awareness that she could not see him and yet he was very real to me. I remember how I began thinking differently that day about my mother. I realized I knew things that she did not. I loved my mother but this allowed me to remember memories of other times in this lifetime when I laid in my crib and watched this UFO type planes dance among the clouds.
I felt I was part of two places and families. I soon learned that there were some things in this world that I would keep to myself.
I went to my first elementary school called then Plum Street Elementary School and I lived on South Seventh Street within a few blocks so I could walk to school in the first grade. By the second grade this is when my life changes in ways that I am no longer told to know who I am but I grew up due to an Epiphany Mystical Experience.
I was a bright child and did well in school. I had somehow become ill with infectious hepatitis. I was hospitalized when my skin turned yellow and I could no longer eat. I was in a critical state and almost died before they got a machine to clean my blood. This machine needed I was told came up from New Orleans, La. USA. This machine saved my life but somewhere in the time of many weeks of which I was so ill I had lost all motion in my body and could not move, I went to what I called heaven and spoke with angels. In my mind, I have always had a second family and I remember the beings of light bringing me back to the room and remaining overhead in the corner of the room. No one else could see these light beings. After telling my mother and grandmother I was told to not tell anyone else but I was so impressed with my first Near Death Experience (NDE) that I told nurses who in turn told others and people from the Catholic Church came to visit me. We had our own Baptist Preacher of course but I remember the Nuns and Men in Brown robes making a point to speak to me. I knew that I was very mature for my age and felt as an adult in a child’s body from this day forward. I was more intelligent than most children and had to learn to be a happy child but I observed from one point of consciousness at all times while also being the child I was expected to be with family and friends. I had gained certain powers which others did not display so much such as what I would now call extra sensory perception, empathy for others pain and knowing things before they were going to happen.
My life becomes much more complicated through time when I will my relatives to take me to White Sands, New Mexico where I will see in physical real time a spacecraft not of earth origin. My Uncle worked at White Sands Missile Range in 1959-60.
My life even though in a child’s body I felt I was an adult and had past life memories. I had already been at age 3-4-or 5 been taken up in what I call a flying saucer from South 7th Street in Monroe and left to wake up in a field. There is a home where the field was then which was simply an empty lot one house over from our own. Back then it was in April or May and my mother was expecting or had just had my sister Brenda and I was missing so mother called my grandmother who called my Aunt and Uncle to come and find me. These three people are the ones who took me to White Sands, New Mexico…
The life I have has many episodes or high points and I am not sure how to piece them together since they are almost unbelievable. I have put off telling this story for so long.
As an adult I have more UFO ET Contact over an entire lifetime and to me this is just part of being who I am. How this changes the way many of us view life I believe is part of why I am here and how so many of us who have had similar experiences are supposed to now share our stories with others since we now have the Internet.
Just like the computers we have we can now understand how life exists here and on other planets. I believe that our body-mind-spirits are just like a computer while we are here. We can use them and yet when we leave earth we can still be in contact with the information that is streaming in particles and waves outside of us we now call the Internet in cyberspace. I believe it is time we all start working together not only to share the space above our planet in the universe but the space which is called the critical mass mind where all energy essence and memories are stored. I believe our spirit is like the software we use and are constantly writing and rewriting while here in this incarnation. However, when we die our stored information is in our memories and our spirit which as an astral body of us and we can speak to those we call angels and ET out of body as I have done when having other NDEs. I have learned also the difference in astral travel and will now do what I can with my own TJ Morris ET Radio to assist others to learn
the difference between NDES, OBES, and Astral Travel while we sleep or have a hallucination due to herbs or change using chemicals. I understand that we are aware of how some of the brain works now but many studies apparently being done may not yet understand the different types of NDES, OBES, Astral Travel (AT), Remote Viewing, Lucid Dreaming, and actual physical ET Contact. Everyone has a soul purpose and mission on earth and suicide prevention will benefit from our stories shared with our Ascension Center Organization.
I have a long story to tell and I am just trying to get down the highlights for Janet which she calls talking points for a show we shall begin for the Ascension Center Organization. I will also share this on my own websites for those interested and in my magazines online.

Psychic Reading By TJ Morris ET Radio

Websites: TheresaJMorris.com, TheresaJMorris.org, TJMorrisACO.com, TJMorrisET.com, TJMorris.TV, Anewnews.com, American NewsMagazine.com, SocialParanormal.com.
Psychic Reader work typically from their woman owned small business at their home and occasionally at a booth at a conference or fair.
A psychic reading is a specific attempt to discern information through the use of heightened perceptive abilities; or natural extensions of the basic human senses of sight, sound, touch, taste and instinct.
These natural extensions are claimed to be Clairvoyance (vision), Clairsentience (feeling), Claircognizance (factual knowing) and Clairaudience (hearing) and the resulting statements made during such an attempt.
The term is commonly associated with paranormal-based consultation given for a fee in such settings as over the phone, in a home, or at psychic fairs.
Though psychic readings are controversial and a focus of skeptical inquiry, a popular interest in them persists.
Extensive experimentation to replicate psychic results in laboratory conditions has failed to find any precognitive phenomena in humans.
Psychic reading is pseudoscience.
A cold reading technique allows psychics to produce seemingly specific information about an individual from social cues and broad statements.
Types of psychic reading
There are many types of psychic readings practiced. Although psychic readings might not incorporate the use of any tools, a professional psychic may have one or more specialized areas of expertise. Some of the more common readings include Tarot reading, email psychic reading, palm reading, psychometry, aura readings, or astrological readings.
Astrology
Astrology readings are a form of divination based on alignments of the sun, moon, planets and fixed stars. Astrology is an ancient practice and pre-dates many scientific methods of astral observation. Astrology does not require psychic ability.
Aura reading
Aura readings involve the observation and interpretation of auras.
The aura is a field of subtle, luminous radiation supposedly surrounding a person.
Psychics have offered aura readings for many years. They claim to have a unique ability to see or sense individual’s auras, however no evidence has ever been provided to substantiate this claim. The only supporting evidence for this claim lies within the logical fallacy that psychics use when they claim they are one of the special few individuals who can see auras, and that they are unable to provide evidence to prove this claim.
Psychics suggest auras are made up of “bioelectromagnetic fields” or other such phenomenon that do not have a legitimate, scientific meaning. Individuals such as James Randi have tried to test claims made about aura reading, and when he includes a few simple regulations to the test, all the claimants abilities disappear.
Since the ability to read auras has been so publicly debunked, Robert Bruce, in his book Auric Mechanics and Theory, has updated the conditions or variables that need to be in place for a proper aura reading. Bruce stated that auras cannot be seen if any part of the person emitting the aura is obscured. One must wonder why clothing doesn’t seem to inhibit aura readings.
Cartomancy or Playing Card Reading
Cartomancy is fortune-telling or divination using a deck of cards.
Tarot readings are a form of Cartomancy.
Cleromancy
Cleromantic readings usually involve casting small objects and reading them by their position, orientation, and mutual proximity. There are numerous variants used throughout the world.
Distant readings
A distant reading, “traveling clairvoyance”, or “remote perception” can be conducted without the reader ever meeting the client.
This includes Letters, Telephone, SMS, Email, Chat and Webcam Readings.
Correspondence readings are usually done via letters, later emails and filling in special forms on Psychic websites.
Telephone readings are live readings where both Psychic and Client hear each other by connecting via Premium Rate telephone line. In the last years, with restrictions on premium rate numbers, more common are pre-paid callbacks, in which case Client leaves his/her credit card details over the phone to an operator, after which gets a call on a specified phone number.
Telephone readings became most popular with the growth of live advice TV shows as main means of advertising, and is commonly used by Companies rather than individual Psychics, due to high setup costs.
SMS and Chat readings are a quick Question-and-Answer format of Reading allowing exchange of basic information between Psychic and Client.
Webcam Reading or Video Chat Reading is the newest way of Psychic Reading allowing real time live connection between Psychic and Client. Client has possibility to see and hear Psychic, and can choose to be viewed, seen and/or type during the Reading.
Lithomancy and crystallomancy
Lithomancy readings usually involve especially suitable gems or stones that are immersed in water, or tossed as a set and read by mutual proximity.
Its origins are unknown, and there are numerous different methodologies used by various cultures throughout the world. A recently more common variant is crystallomancy also known as crystal gazing. Using quartz as a crystal ball it is stereotypically depicted as gypsy fortune telling.
Numerology
Numerology is defined as the study of the occult meanings of numbers and their influence on human life. It is essentially a reading of an individual based specifically upon numerical values such as their date of birth, letters in their names, etc. Numerology can be used in psychic readings.
Palm reading
Palmistry is another popular method of psychic readings, involving characterization and foretelling of one’s future through the study of the lines, shapes, wrinkles and curves on the palm. Palmistry does not require psychic ability, as it generally uses cold reading abilities and previous knowledge of the subject.
Psychometry
Psychometry is a form of psychic reading in which the reader claims to obtain details about another through physical contact with their possessions.
Psychometry readers often ask the subject for their favorite and most meaningful objects, such as wedding rings, glasses, car keys, etc., for the reading. The belief is that objects which are in close proximity to a person for extended periods of time hold some of that person’s energy; energy which can be detected.
This method has been used to try and locate missing persons.
Rune reading- Runic magic
Runes are an ancient alphabet used for divining the future. The runes are cast on a mat to discern future events or path a problem or issue will take. Runes are also considered magic and are used for spells and incantations by some witches.
Tarot reading
Divinatory, esoteric and occult tarot
Tarot cards have been greatly popularized, but can be often regarded solely as entertainment. Traditional decks are available in chain bookstores. New decks also frequently appear in New Age bookstores. Though not requiring psychic abilities, Tarot cards can be used as a psychic or cold reading tool and Tarot readings are common at psychic fairs.
See also, Cold Reading, Mediumship, Psychic, Remote viewing, Cosmology. Spiritualists.

JOIN IN THE FUN ON TJ MORRIS ET RADIO SHOW – 9 Eastern, 8 Central, 7 Mountain, 6 Pacific – Prime Time on Blog Talk Radio – Theresa J Morris is the Host – Link is http://blogtalkradio.com/TJMorrisETradio

Check out the ARCHIVES of INTERESTING INTERVIEWS of TJ Morris & Friends of the Social Paranormal Kind and also the Spiritual Ascension Age podcast.

TJ Morris ET Org

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TJ MORRIS is best known as Psychic Intuitive Advisor Consultant Theresa J Morris

 

 BIO – Intuitive Life Counselor – Avatar Ascension Master of ACE Universal Life Ministries of Emotional-Mental-Physical-Spiritual –ACE Body-Mind-Spirit Expo

 

ET Seminars – Divine Expo  2014 – Akashic Quest w/ TJ Morris TV & TJ Morris ET Radio

 

TJ Morris aka Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

 

DOB :12-26-51, Monroe, LA 12 Noon,

 

Psychic Intuitive Clairsentient – Former Investigator, Private, GS, Legal, Investigative Reporter, Author, Entrepreneur, Hostess-Speaker, Toastmaster, Member BMI, Former IBMA, USTA, CMA, Former Military DOD,USN – Former OTR Truck Driver USA, Webmaster – Radio & TV, TheresaJMorris.org, ACOCorp.org, ACENonprofitInc.com, TJMorrisET.com, TJMorrisACO.com, TheresaJMorris.com,

 

Social Paranormal Magazine, American News Magazine, Anew news Magazine.

 

ACE Folklife.org – dba ACE – Ascension Center Organization dba ACO

 

TJ believes in living a balanced ascension centered enlightened life as a spiritual intellectual and shares her essence and energy and sometimes funding and creations with those who are in alignment with her own endorsements and beliefs as a patron and leader in the discoveries of the future minds of the world. TJ has been associated with many famous people in her time on earth and began on television at age of 3 years and while in grade school was on TV weekly. She is an extrovert to some and believed to be an introvert to others. TJ enjoys psychic science and neuro science and shares brain training and spiritual training as part of being a well-balanced humanoid in body-mind-spirit in the birth-life-death experience which is her faith. Shamanic Healing Arts. TJ believes in creative design and reincarnation for the soul. TJ  is a natural born leader which is so noted in astrology as she is a Capricorn with Aquarius rising in her Astrological Chart.

 

Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris, Precognitionist, Psychic Medium, shares her life in her books as an Author, and her professional skills on her Radio Show called TJ Morris ET Radio.

 

See http://blogtalkradio.com/TJMorrisETradio

 

How TO Social Network METAPHYSICS   ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris

How TO Social Network
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ACO Social Service Club
with TJ Morris

TJ Morris ACO

TJ Morris ACO

ACE Folklife Book Club ACE Nonprofit Inc

ACE Folklife Book Club
ACE Nonprofit Inc

A SENSION CARE ACE Nonprofit Inc A division of TJ Morris ACO Social Service  Care  & Call Center

A SENSION CARE
ACE Nonprofit Inc
A division of TJ Morris
ACO Social Service
Care & Call Center

Ascension Center Universal Life Church TJ Morris ACE/ACO Ministries

Ascension Center
Universal Life Church
TJ Morris ACE/ACO
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TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club ACE Nonprofit Inc

TJ Morris ACO
Social Service Club
ACE Nonprofit Inc

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USA Flag
ACE Universal Life
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ACE Universal Life Ministries TJ Morris ACO ACIR ACO Corp - Agent Organizer

ACE Universal Life Ministries
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Truthseekers

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Timely Manor Books

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TJ Morris 1997 Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris
1997
Theresa J Morris

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TJ Morris ET 2008 MUFON Photo

TJ Morris ET
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Apple CEO sees more ‘gamechangers'; hints at wearable devices: Thomson Reuters

Apple CEO sees more ‘gamechangers'; hints at wearable devices: Thomson Reuters

TJ Morris ACO  http://tjmorrisaco.com

Hello my name is Theresa and I go by TJ.

I am a social entrepreneur with books, ebooks, websites, and the TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club. I am new at learning online and this orientation is important for my new foundation to incorporate into my daily schedule and lifestyle.

 

I am 61 years young and share information online with people around the world with my radio show with various topics on different days including two that are very popular which are paranormal and  spiritual.

 

My professional background and career training is lengthy with jobs however, lacking in formal education as far as academia is concerned for stacking up higher and deeper towards a Ph.D.  I began my first college courses in Law Enforcement, Psychology, and English. My jobs began in apartment managing, day care center director, police officer, maid-aid, Private Investigator, Para-Legal, Legal Investigator, Government Investigations out-of-country, U.S. Government Contractor, U.S. Navy in uniform and as a GS, President/CEO of a profit and nonprofit corporation, over the road truck driver, newspaper reporter, agent and organizer, Chairman of  a Civil Nonprofit for fellowship, event planner, website builder, American ambassador of goodwill, and now I am working with India to improve people’s lives.

                                                     

I had four daughters in my lifetime and now have twelve grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren with a husband who served in the U.S. Army and worked directly in and out of the White House for both President Ronald Reagan, and President George W. Bush, I was born in Louisiana and raised in Texas. I loved working for the military and government and have learned to adapt and overcome to change which constant due to my outside is paid for professional seminar training during the human potential movement prior to 12-21-12. Now I am recreating and reinventing myself and my world with other co-creators. I look forward to learning “How to learn online”.

Respectively,

Theresa J Morris

Webmaster: Sushant M Tripathi for Theresa J Morris

As of Monday, May 27, 2013 TJ made Sushant EDITOR on TJ MORRIS ACO.com a website made with WordPress.

TJ will see within 48 hours how SUSHANT will begin making this website look more professional to represent SUSHANT and TJ MORRIS ACO doing BUSINESS TOGETHER in the COMMUNITY ONLINE PRACTICING SKILLS as a MODEL WEBSITE for what SUSHANT and TJ can OFFER THEIR CLIENTS in a JOINT VENTURE called TJ MORRIS ACO in the USA.

ACO CORPORATION – USA & INDIA

PRINCIPAL: Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris ACO, 260 Carolyn Lane, Beaver Dam, KY USA 42320-9766, 1-270-274-6707,TJMorrisACO@gmail.com

Principal Owner: Theresa J Morris

RE: Business – Joint Venture

Expense Categories

 

Categories – TJ Morris MEDIA – TJMorris dba ACIR

Ø  Presently all Expenses are paid by TJ Morris ACO Company

Ø  1.) – TJ Morris Publishing – Income from Lulu INC, North Carolina – Royalty

Ø  2.) – TJ Morris ET Radio – Income from Blogtalkradio-Commission Junction Advertisers-Pay Pal ACO CORPORATION – USA & INDIA

PRINCIPAL: Theresa J Morris

TJ Morris ACO, 260 Carolyn Lane, Beaver Dam, KY USA 42320-9766

Principal Owner: Theresa J Morris

 

Expense Categories

                                                            Categories – TJ Morris MEDIA – TJMorris dba ACIR

Ø  Presently all Expenses are paid by TJ Morris ACO Company

Ø  1.) – TJ Morris Publishing – Income from Lulu INC, North Carolina – Royalty

Advertising                    

Contractors and Freelancers                             

Cost of Goods Sold                                    

Credit Card Payment                                                                               

Estimated and Income Tax Payments                                                                          

HIDE (Duplicate/Wrong Expense)                                                                 

Meals & Entertainment                                         

Mileage                                             

Office Supplies                                             

Other Expenses                                           

Owner’s Pay/Draw                                                                   

Personal Expense                                                                      

Sales Tax Submitted                                

Set UP Franchise LICENSEE-INDIA (Legal Fees)                                     

Supplies                                           

Transfer Out                                                                 

Travel                                

Uncategorized                                             

Utilities

CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATION

This e-mail is covered by the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18 U.S.C. §2510-2521 and is legally privileged. This information is confidential information and is intended only for the use of the individual or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution, or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited.

Ø   

 [7:56:53 AM] *** Call to SUSHANT TRIPATHI, no answer. ***

[7:56:57 AM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Please SKYPE ME your soonest. Thank you

[1:13:10 PM] SUSHANT TRIPATHI: yes

[1:13:18 PM] SUSHANT TRIPATHI: 10 mins

[1:13:23 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: HI I am here

[1:13:27 PM] SUSHANT TRIPATHI: hi

[1:13:32 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: We have various worlds and ways of wisdom in the cosmos. Those who practice metaphysics and the extraterrestrial intelligent ways of thinking may begin sharing in the Ascension Age. We are all enjoying what makes us different and yet the same. Those who desire to discuss Aliens, ETs, UFOS, Space, Engineering, and Science will do well to join our Alien Contact Investigations Research Groups. Some who are mystics, oracles, psychics, prophets, sages, seers, may want to join the Ascension Center Organization. For those of you into being authors, creators, educators, and are Advocates of the Arts & Sciences may want to join our ACE FOLKLIFE Association. We have clubs and associations. I am one who believes in a LIFE LEARNING JOURNEY not only about my internal self but my external surroundings. We exist and are superconductors which are incompatible with the laws of physics when it comes to being a Torus Synergy Symbol as Body-Mind-Spirit having the Birth-Life-Death Experience. No other that I have met can explain to me my own experiences while on this planet since they are not me. We are about sharing our Personal Experiences and how we plan on making the world a better place. We each should become awake and aware that we should provide synergy for the health and prosperity for all. I am TJ Morris and I am known for the ET Radio Show and soon to be TJMorris.TV. We share in the Education Etymology Epistemology Process of Communication of Information about our Social Paranormal Experiences. Social Paranormal Magazine and Associate Guides are part of the TJMorrisACO.com. We share our friendships in the Dawn of the Ascension Age Alchemy of our Journey together on Spaceship Earth. MEET OTHERS! MEET HUMANS HERE WITH TJ MORRIS ET

[1:14:13 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: I need to discuss with you LADIES LEARN TO EARN in INDIA please – We shall Begin in NEW DELHI – Please SKYPE ME

[1:15:18 PM] *** Call to SUSHANT TRIPATHI, busy. ***

[1:16:25 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: May we talk today please? HOW IS VODAPHONE? I will get involved with helping communications campaigns for you

[1:17:08 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: I am here on SKYPE now. I saw you listed TJ Morris ACO as a CUSTOMER on your LIST but I do not know why or what you have done so please we must show progress or it is a LIE!

[1:19:02 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: I see Green Feather but I do not see a professional website of YOUR DESIGN? Please explain – I agreed to share with you a company JOINT for $100 A MONTH to begin…I understand you can take my $100 and TRAIN others with me and make it $1K for FARMERS in the FIELD for their FEMALES… I also understand it only rains June through September and is very hot so we must work NOT ONLY in COMMUNICATION, and TRAINING but IRRIGATION

[1:19:06 PM] *** Call from SUSHANT TRIPATHI ***

[1:39:36 PM] SUSHANT TRIPATHI: smtripathi@greenfeatherinc.com

[1:44:25 PM] *** Call ended, duration 25:19 ***

[1:44:40 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: HI=

[1:44:55 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: As A woman in BUSINESS in USA – I WILL RETAIN 51%

[1:45:17 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: When we talk REALITY of $$ WE always get CUT OFF

[1:45:47 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: I believe MY COUNTRY and YOUR COUNTRY will want to be involved with WHAT EVER WE DO CO-CREATE

[1:46:11 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: IS this VODAPHONE? We need BETTER COMMUNICATION in order to continue doing business PLEASE?

[1:46:30 PM] *** Missed call from SUSHANT TRIPATHI. ***

[1:46:30 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: YOU WILL INVEST IN MY COMPANY TOO

[1:46:38 PM] *** Call to SUSHANT TRIPATHI, busy. ***

[1:46:52 PM] *** Call from SUSHANT TRIPATHI, duration 45:29. ***

[2:33:19 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Order of Business for TJ’s Corporation called ACO Corp

[2:34:23 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: See Attorney = Write up Reciprocation of Green Feather and for Managing Partner of ACO Corporation with Franchise License Agreement of Trademark

[2:34:46 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: TJ Morris tm ACIR sm in INDIA

[2:36:06 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Theresa J Morris will own and maintain at all times 51% and according to law as a woman government contractor must maintain always 51% therefore NO OTHER MAN can OWN that 51% so – WE WILL SET UP STOCK SHARES for the ENTIRE WORLD based on 260 COUNTRIES.

[2:37:02 PM] *** Call to SUSHANT TRIPATHI, no answer. ***

Theresa “”TJ” Morris

[2:39:11 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Sushant. We must allow for WORDING of OUR BUSINESS in 24/7 will be based on COMMUNICATION. We are at the mercy of ATT and VODAPHONE. I will need a CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT from YOU for BUSINESS with the ACO CORP IN USA

[2:40:05 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 1. I must become a MAGNET for other businesses to want to work with me in USA.

[2:40:28 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 2. I Must offer EDUCATION so that people can LEARN TO EARN with TJ Morris tm and ACIR service mark.

[2:41:20 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 3. I MUST WORK HARD! – A woman in business will earn less but work more! So- Love and Light with INTUITION must be written into the SPIRITUAL TAB of all my ACE NONPROFIT INC Corporation. I have 2 CORPORATIONS.

[2:41:31 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 1. – ACO CORP is the PROFIT CORP

[2:42:00 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 2. – ACE Nonprofit Inc is the NOT FOR PROFIT Corporation

[2:42:28 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: 3. TJ MORRIS ACO is the Small Business owned by 1 woman as sole proprietor.

[2:43:04 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: MY Personal BRAND is MY BUSINESS and is what I DO! Not who I am. I am Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

[2:43:36 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: MY Profit Corporation is the MARKETING of my BRAND “TJ MORRIS” tm

[2:43:57 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: My CHARITY business is EDUCATION called ACE NONPROFIT INC.

[4:19:50 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris:  Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ;)

[4:22:53 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: You are now the Master of your Fate and Mahatma Gandhi is our connection. Will explain more later.  FOR NOW, Please go to the WEBSITE which I expect you to make professional so we can MAKE $$ together with our FUTURE in ONLINE MARKETING and SOCIAL MEDIA with our TJ MORRIS ACO which you are now WEBSMASTER. I shall use WORDPRESS for now because it is easiest for me. YOU ARE NOW EDITOR! Thank you. TJ -

[4:24:14 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Once we grow our business for Community Online Practicing Skills as COPS under the FRANCHISE AGREEMENT of TJ MORRIS ACO then we shall share more of my ASSETS …TJ

[4:28:59 PM] Theresa “”TJ” Morris: Sushant I can only contribute $100 Budget in the beginning this year JUNE through NOVEMBER. This will give you $600 to save it for the FILING LEGAL FOR YOU TO REGISTER WITH ATTORNEY but in the meantime, YOU WILL HAVE TO BE WEBMASTER and MAKE US A COMMERCIAL that will outline what we can offer in our COMMUNITY ONLINE PRACTICING SKILLS as COPS for our PERSONAL CONSULTANTS and CLIENTS! Thank you TJ

CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATION

This e-mail is covered by the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18 U.S.C. §2510-2521 and is legally privileged. This information is confidential information and is intended only for the use of the individual or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution, or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. Hello Sushant Please See my website TJMorrisACO.com and TheresaJMorris.com

How To Social Network Metaphysics ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris

ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris List Price: $9.95 Add to Cart About the author: Theresa J Morris, author, speaker, social entrepreneur is the founder of the ACO dba Ascension Center Organization, ACE Folklife dba ACE Nonprofit Inc, and TJ Morris dba ACIR. Theresa is known as TJ and has the TJ Morris ET Radio Talk Show. TJ specializes in Social Networking the Paranormal and Spiritual ACO Social Service Club. Theresa has been a Private Investigator, Legal Investigator, Government Investigator, Founded the Psychic Network, been a commercial truck driver, and spent many years researching and reading various authors books in metaphysics, spirituality, ancient history, and had many classes of the human potential movement in America. Theresa gets the work and the word out to take action of one’s own personal life with goals. TJ is a well-known entrepreneur with fans of her books and as a columnist for various magazines, and ezines. TJ is presently working with various personal consultants around the world in global tectonic economics while sharing her books as an author. How to Social Network Metaphysics ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris Authored by Theresa J Morris Edition: 1 How to Social Network Metaphysics is the guide book for all those who desire to share in the metaphysical field of topics that can be shared with others. An informative guide for making decisions about how to proceed in the future with a peer group of metaphysicians who share their talents, skills, products, and services online. Publication Date: Apr 22 2013 ISBN/EAN13: 1484197909 / 9781484197905 Page Count: 140 Binding Type: US Trade Paper Trim Size: 6″ x 9″ Language: English Color: Black and White Related Categories: Self-Help / Motivational & Inspirational

Theresa J Morris, Author, Speaker, Radio Host of TJ Morris ET Radio

ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris List Price: $9.95 Add to Cart About the author: Theresa J Morris, author, speaker, social entrepreneur is the founder of the ACO dba Ascension Center Organization, ACE Folklife dba ACE Nonprofit Inc, and TJ Morris dba ACIR. Theresa is known as TJ and has the TJ Morris ET Radio Talk Show. TJ specializes in Social Networking the Paranormal and Spiritual ACO Social Service Club. Theresa has been a Private Investigator, Legal Investigator, Government Investigator, Founded the Psychic Network, been a commercial truck driver, and spent many years researching and reading various authors books in metaphysics, spirituality, ancient history, and had many classes of the human potential movement in America. Theresa gets the work and the word out to take action of one’s own personal life with goals. TJ is a well-known entrepreneur with fans of her books and as a columnist for various magazines, and ezines. TJ is presently working with various personal consultants around the world in global tectonic economics while sharing her books as an author. How to Social Network Metaphysics ACO Social Service Club with TJ Morris Authored by Theresa J Morris Edition: 1 How to Social Network Metaphysics is the guide book for all those who desire to share in the metaphysical field of topics that can be shared with others. An informative guide for making decisions about how to proceed in the future with a peer group of metaphysicians who share their talents, skills, products, and services online. Publication Date: Apr 22 2013 ISBN/EAN13: 1484197909 / 9781484197905 Page Count: 140 Binding Type: US Trade Paper Trim Size: 6″ x 9″ Language: English Color: Black and White Related Categories: Self-Help / Motivational & Inspirational

Theresa J Morris as TJ Morris, ACIR – ACO/ACE

TJ Morris dba ACIR ACO dba Ascension Center Organization ACE Folklife dba ACE = Alien Close Encounters Support Network Theresa J Morris is Author/Entrepreneur and Founding Director of the Alien Contact Experiencers of ACE Nonprofit Inc. Theresa also known as TJ Morris dba ACIR is an American who has had Close Encounters her entire life and has devoted her Life’s Work to sharing the future with support groups of Lightworkers and Truthseekers of the Ascension Age. Theresa began her research in the human potential movement after a NDE near death experience in May, 1958 and again January 27, 1974 and both times she experienced alien intelligence beings whom she considered angels at the time. TJ has since changed how she believes in extraterrestrials based on UFO Sightings and ET Encounters and is now sharing her story with those who join her in her TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club. TJ Morris is the Talk Show Host of the TJ Morris ET Radio weekly. TJ has written several books including Roswell Encounters, Ascension Age, and Alien UFO Story by TJ. TJ is now working with various small business entrepreneurs to form an annual conference in AMERICA with those who support her work in art, culture, education for the social changes and the new humanoid species as a supporter of a new spiritual science movement as a “Family of Kindred Spirits of the Social Paranormal Kind.” TJ’s professional background is as a Private, Legal, and Government investigator and refers to herself simply as an entrepreneur.

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