BASIC 101 – TERMS AND USE – SOFTWARE – Computer Science
In computer science, a software agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere to do: an agreement to act on one’s behalf.
Such “action on behalf of” implies the authority to decide which, if any, action is appropriate.
Related and derived concepts include intelligent agents in particular exhibiting some aspect of artificial intelligence, such as learning and reasoning, autonomous agents capable of modifying the way in which they achieve their objectives, distributed agents being executed on physically distinct computers, multi-agent systems distributed agents that do not have the capabilities to achieve an objective alone and thus must communicate, and mobile agents, agents that can relocate their execution onto different processors.
The basic attributes of a software agent are that agents
are not strictly invoked for a task, but activate themselves,
may reside in wait status on a host, perceiving context,
may get to run status on a host upon starting conditions,
do not require interaction of user,
may invoke other tasks including communication.
Nwana’s Category of Software Agent
The concept of an agent provides a convenient and powerful way to describe a complex software entity that is capable of acting with a certain degree of autonomy in order to accomplish tasks on behalf of its host.
But unlike objects, which are defined in terms of methods and attributes, an agent is defined in terms of its behavior.
Various authors have proposed different definitions of agents, these commonly include concepts such as
persistence code is not executed on demand but runs continuously and decides for itself when it should perform some activity
autonomy agents have capabilities of task selection, prioritization, goal-directed behaviour, decision-making without human intervention
social ability agents are able to engage other components through some sort of communication and coordination, they may collaborate on a task
reactivity agents perceive the context in which they operate and react to it appropriately.
Contrasting the term with related concepts may help clarify its meaning. Franklin & Graesser (1997)
Discuss four key notions that distinguish agents from arbitrary programs:
reaction to the environment, autonomy, goal-orientation and persistence.
- Agents are more autonomous than objects.
- Agents have flexible behaviour: reactive, proactive, social.
- Agents have at least one thread of control but may have more.
- (Wooldridge, 2002)
- Expert systems are not coupled to their environment;
Expert systems are not designed for reactive, proactive behavior.
Expert systems do not consider social ability
- (Wooldridge, 2003)
- Intelligent agents also known as rational agents are not just computer programs:
- they may also be machines, human beings, communities of human beings such as firms or anything that is capable of goal directed behavior.
Software agents may offer various benefits to their end users by automating complex or repetitive tasks.
However, there are organizational and cultural impacts of this technology that need to be considered prior to implementing software agents.
Organizational impacts include the transformation of the entire electronic commerce sector, operational encumbrance, and security overload.
Software agents are able to quickly search the Internet, identify the best offers available online, and present this information to the end users in aggregate form.
Therefore, users may not need to manually browse various websites of individual merchants;
they are able to locate the best deal in a matter of seconds.
At the same time, this increases price-based competition and transforms the entire electronic commerce sector into a uniform perfect competition market.
The implementation of agents also requires additional resources from the companies, places an extra burden on their networks, and requires new security process.
People like to perform easy tasks providing the sensation of success unless the repetition of the simple tasking is affecting the overall output.
In general implementing software agents to perform administrative requirements provides a substantial increase in work contentment, as administering their own work does never please the worker.
The effort freed up serves for higher degree of engagement in the substantial tasks of individual work.
Hence, software agents may provide the basics to implement self-controlled work, relieved from hierarchical controls and interference.
Such conditions may be secured by application of software agents for required formal support.
The cultural effects of the implementation of software agents include trust affliction, skills erosion, privacy attrition and social detachment.
Some users may not feel entirely comfortable fully delegating important tasks to software applications.
Those who start relying solely on intelligent agents may lose important skills, for example, relating to information literacy.
In order to act on a user’s behalf, a software agent needs to have a complete understanding of a user’s profile, including his/her personal preferences.
This, in turn, may lead to unpredictable privacy issues.
When users start relying on their software agents more, especially for communication activities, they may lose contact with other human users and look at the word with the eyes of their agents.
It is these consequences that agent researchers and users need to consider dealing with intelligent agent technologies.
The concept of an agent can be traced back to Hewitt’s Actor Model (Hewitt, 1977)
– “A self-contained, interactive and concurrently-executing object, possessing internal state and communication capability.”
To be more academic, software agent systems are a direct evolution from Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). MAS evolved from Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI),
Distributed Problem Solving (DPS)
and Parallel AI (PAI), thus inheriting all characteristics (good and bad) from DAI and AI.
Being an ideal first, this field experienced a series of unsuccessful top-down implementations, instead of a piece-by-piece, bottom-up approach.
The range of agent types is now (from 1990) broad: WWW, search engines, etc.
See also: Intelligent agent
Buyer agents or shopping bots
User or personal agents
Buyer agents travel around a network (e.g. the internet) retrieving information about goods and services.
These agents, also known as ‘shopping bots’, work very efficiently for commodity products such as CDs, books, electronic components, and other one-size-fits-all products.
User agents, or personal agents, are intelligent agents that take action on your behalf.
In this category belong those intelligent agents that already perform, or will shortly perform, the following tasks:
Check your e-mail, sort it according to the user’s order of preference, and alert you when important emails arrive.
Play computer games as your opponent or patrol game areas for you.
Assemble customized news reports for you. There are several versions of these, including CNN.
Find information for you on the subject of your choice.
Fill out forms on the Web automatically for you, storing your information for future reference
Scan Web pages looking for and highlighting text that constitutes the “important” part of the information there
“Discuss” topics with you ranging from your deepest fears to sports
Facilitate with online job search duties by scanning known job boards and sending the resume to opportunities who meet the desired criteria
Profile synchronization across heterogeneous social networks
Monitoring and Surveillance Agents are used to observe and report on equipment, usually computer systems.
The agents may keep track of company inventory levels, observe competitors’ prices and relay them back to the company, watch stock manipulation by insider trading and rumors, etc.
For example, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has an agent that monitors inventory, planning, and scheduling equipment ordering to keep costs down, as well as food storage facilities.
These agents usually monitor complex computer networks that can keep track of the configuration of each computer connected to the network.
A special case of Monitoring-and-Surveillance agents are organizations of agents used to emulate the Human Decision Making process during tactical operations.
The agents monitor the status of assets (ammunition, weapons available, platforms for transport, etc.) and receive Goals (Missions) from higher level agents.
The Agents then pursue the Goals with the Assets at hand, minimizing expenditure of the Assets while maximizing Goal Attainment. See Popplewell, “Agents and Applicability” for more information.
This agent uses information technology to find trends and patterns in an abundance of information from many different sources.
The user can sort through this information in order to find whatever information they are seeking.
A data mining agent operates in a data warehouse discovering information.
A ‘data warehouse’ brings together information from lots of different sources. “Data mining” is the process of looking through the data warehouse to find information that you can use to take action, such as ways to increase sales or keep customers who are considering defecting.
‘Classification’ is one of the most common types of data mining, which finds patterns in information and categorizes them into different classes.
Data mining agents can also detect major shifts in trends or a key indicator and can detect the presence of new information and alert you to it.
For example, the agent may detect a decline in the construction industry for an economy; based on this relayed information construction companies will be able to make intelligent decisions regarding the hiring/firing of employees or the purchase/lease of equipment in order to best suit their firm.
Search engine indexing bots also qualify as intelligent agents.
- User agent – for browsing the World Wide Web
- Mail transfer agent – For serving E-mail, such as Microsoft Outlook.
- Why? It communicates with the POP3 mail server, without users having to understand POP3 command protocols. It even has rule sets that filter mail for the user, thus sparing them the trouble of having to do it themselves.
- SNMP agent
- In Unix-style networking servers, httpd is an HTTP daemon that implements the HyperText Transfer Protocol at the root of the World Wide Web
- Management agents used to manage telecom devices
- Crowd simulation for safety planning or 3D computer graphics,
- Wireless beaconing agent is a simple process hosted single tasking entity for implementing wireless lock or electronic leash in conjunction with more complex software agents hosted e.g. on wireless receivers.
Issues to consider in the development of agent-based systems include
how tasks are scheduled and how synchronization of tasks is achieved
how tasks are prioritized by agents
how agents can collaborate, or recruit resources,
how agents can be re-instantiated in different environments, and how their internal state can be stored,
how the environment will be probed and how a change of environment leads to behavioral changes of the agents
how messaging and communication can be achieved,
what hierarchies of agents are useful e.g. task execution agents, scheduling agents, resource providers …
The definition of agent processing can be approached from two interrelated directions:
internal state processing and ontologies for representing knowledge
- interaction protocols – standards for specifying communication of tasks
Agent systems are used to model real-world systems with concurrency or parallel processing.
Agent Machinery – Engines of various kinds, which support the varying degrees of intelligence
Agent Content – Data employed by the machinery in Reasoning and Learning
Agent Access – Methods to enable the machinery to perceive content and perform actions as outcomes of Reasoning
Agent Security – Concerns related to distributed computing, augmented by a few special concerns related to agents
The agent uses its access methods to go out into local and remote databases to forage for content. These access methods may include setting up news stream delivery to the agent, or retrieval from bulletin boards, or using a spider to walk the Web. The content that is retrieved in this way is probably already partially filtered – by the selection of the newsfeed or the databases that are searched.
The agent next may use its detailed searching or language-processing machinery to extract keywords or signatures from the body of the content that has been received or retrieved.
This abstracted content or event is then passed to the agent’s Reasoning or inferencing machinery in order to decide what to do with the new content.
This process combines the event content with the rule-based or knowledge content provided by the user.
If this process finds a good hit or match in the new content, the agent may use another piece of its machinery to do a more detailed search on the content.
The agent may decide to take an action based on the new content; for example, to notify the user that an important event has occurred.
This action is verified by a security function and then given the authority of the user.
The agent makes use of a user-access method to deliver that message to the user. If the user confirms that the event is important by acting quickly on the notification, the agent may also employ its learning machinery to increase its weighting for this kind of event.
Terms & Conditions of Use for TJ Morris Publishing
These terms may be modified without notice
Use of the TJ Morris Brand and Hosting is subject to the following Terms & Conditions of Use.
By accessing our websites, you agree to comply with these Terms in addition to all other applicable laws and regulations. If you do not agree, you may not use our websites.
The TJ Morris Publishing Press may terminate your access at any time without liability if we the Editors, Copywriters, Hosts, Publishers, and Webmasters determines in good faith that you have violated any of these Terms.
These Terms may be modified at any time without notice.
1. PERMITTED USE
As a current individual subscriber a member of a group with a current subscription or an Authorized User of an institution with a current subscription may access, search, and view content, including the digitized version of websites, blogs, and newsletters we share in our journals and magazines.
If you are an individual subscriber or a member of a group with a subscription you may also create your own unique profile to access and post to Online Forum, to communicate with other users, and to utilize the customization features to add Bookmarks, insert Notes, and create Style Sheets for your personal use and to share with your colleagues.
You may save and print individual sections for your personal use and to share with your colleagues for non-commercial research purposes only.
You may not save or print any substantial portion of CMOS. You may not display, distribute, manipulate, use to prepare derivative works, re-publish, or otherwise re-produce any content beyond the provisions of fair use without acquiring additional permission from the TJ Morris Publishing Press.
2. USER RESPONSIBILITIES
You are responsible for safeguarding the username and password assigned to your account, and you are responsible for any violation of these Terms by anyone who accesses through you or using your username and password.
If you submit any content to be included on the website, you are responsible for ensuring that it is free of all hazards and does not infringe any copyright or other legal rights of a third party. Posting any abusive, obscene, vulgar, slanderous, hateful, threatening, or inappropriately sexual material or any other material that may violate any applicable laws is strictly prohibited and may result in your immediate and permanent ban from use of all TJ Morris Publishing including TJ Morris Hosting, TJ Morris Media, TJ Morris Radio, TJ Morris Entertainment (ET) .
Any content you submit may be re-used by the Press free of royalty and without attribution.
Theresa J Morris, TJ Morris Publishing and dba ACIR Press will have no liability for any loss or damage arising out of use or inability to use any content.
TJ Morris dba ACIR, ACO, ACE, TJ Morris Hosting, TJ Morris Publishing, TJ Morris Radio and The ACIR Press will have no liability for content submitted by users of our websites and material online.
TJ Morris dba ACIR also known as The Investigative Reporter Press makes no representations, warranties, or endorsements with respect to any third-party website that may be accessible through the TJ Morris Brand ACIR sm websites.
TJ Morris dba ACIR Investigative Reporter Press does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of information contained in websites or its merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Material may change at any time without notice.
TJ Morris Publishing, TJ Morris Brand, ACIR sm, ACIR Investigative Reporter Press does not guarantee that all websites will be accessible in any particular hardware or software environment.
TJ Morris Publishing, aka TJ Morris dba ACIR Investigative Reporter Press will make reasonable efforts to ensure that websites communication and information is available on a 24-hour basis, excluding normal network administration and system down time, but if access is suspended or interrupted, liability will be limited to restoring access as soon as possible.
Home Office: TJ Morris Publishing@ Att.net and TJMorrisPublishing@gmail.com
Revised July 2015
- DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language)
- Jason (multi-agent systems development platform)
- 3APL (Artificial Autonomous Agents Programming Language)
- GOAL agent programming language
- Web Ontology Language (OWL)
- daemons in Unix-like systems.
- Java Agent Template (JAT)
- Java Agent Development Framework (JADE)
- Nwana, H. S. (1996). “Software Agents: An Overview” 11 (3). Cambridge University Press, Knowledge Engineering Review. pp. 205–244. 1996. Software Agents: An Overview. Knowledge Engineering Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 205-244, Cambridge University Press
- Schermer,, B. W. (2007). “Software agents, surveillance, and the right to privacy: A legislative framework for agent-enabled Surveillance” (PAPERBACK) 11 (3). Leiden University Press. pp. 140, 205–244. ISBN 978-0-596-00712-6.hdl:1887/11951. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Wooldridge, M.; Jennings, N. R. (1995). “Intelligent agents: theory and practice”. 10(2). Knowledge Engineering Review. pp. 115–152.
- Franklin, S.; Graesser, A. (1996). “Is it an Agent, or just a Program?: A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents”. University of Memphis, Institute for Intelligent Systems. Archived from the original on 1996.
- Serenko, A.; Detlor, B. (2004). “Intelligent agents as innovations” (PDF). 18(4). pp. 364–381.
- Adonisi, M. (2003). “The relationship between Corporate Entrepreneurship, Market Orientation, Organisational Flexibility and Job satisfaction” (PDF) (Diss.). Fac.of Econ.and Mgmt.Sci., Univ.of Pretoria.
- Serenko, A.; Ruhi, U.; Cocosila, M. (2007). “Unplanned effects of intelligent agents on Internet use: Social Informatics approach” (PDF). 21(1-2). Artificial Intelligence & Society. pp. 141–166.
Haag, Stephen (2006). “Management Information Systems for the Information Age”. pp. 224–228.
- Software Agents: An Overview, Hyacinth S. Nwana. Knowledge Engineering Review, 11(3):1–40, September 1996. Cambridge University Press.
- FIPA The Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents
- JADE Java Agent Developing Framework, an Open Source framework developed by Telecom Italia Labs
- European Software-Agent Research Center
- SemanticAgent An Open Source framework to develop SWRL based Agents on top of JADE
- Mobile-C A Multi-Agent Platform for Mobile C/C++ Agents.
- HLL High Level Logic (HLL) Open Source Project.
- Open source project KATO for PHP and Java developers to write software agents
- Definition: Sovereignty means that God, as the ruler of the Universe, has the right to do whatever he wants. Further, he is in complete control over everything that …
Definition of sovereignty: Absolute, supreme and ultimate dominion and authority of a political state subject to no higher power, expressed within its territory in …
Sovereignty is authority to govern a state or a state that is self governing. An example of sovereignty is the power of a king to rule his people. YourDictionary …
- Complexity and heterogeneity of biologics. Science of biology is still evolving. Hence, difficulty in understanding CQA’s, CPP’s and their relationships.
- Unclear guidance from Regulatory Agencies (FDA, EMA, etc.) on process consistency and clinical performance
- Difficulty in predicting Scale-up models and technology transfers to commercial lines
- Misaligned (or siloed) values within organizations: R&D must invest initially but Manufacturing will mainly reap benefits.
- Lack of experience in characterizing Design Space and Multivariate Analysis
https://www.google.com/trends/ to spy on what society has classified a given concept within a certain timeframe.
Ascension Age Intutive Reader
Western astrology, Tarot reading, Numerology readings, Pendulum, Dream interpretation, Crystal reading, Clairvoyance, Reiki, Feng shui, Crystal healing, Holistic healing, Natural healing, Chakra healing, Angel readings, Angel communication, Angel healing, Love and sex, Home and family, Career and business, Travelling and relocation, Mind and body, Health and healing, Rituals and energies, Lost and found
Theresa J Morris
TJ Morris ET Relationship Earth
☆ Soul Mate
Apparitions – Ghosts
SPECIALITIES ET SPIRIT GUIDE
(♣) Reiki Healer
(♣) Spiritual Counselor
(♣) Tarot Reader Since 1984
(♣)Master Healing Meditations and Prayers
(♣) Life Coach Advisor
Bio – Theresa J Morris
Share in TJ Morris Treasure show of the Conscious Cosmos Connection on her radio transmission adventures. Find out about how to tap into your universal mind connection with TJ Morris & Friends. Call in and be on the TJ Morris ET Radio Show at 347-945-7207 and become a part of history in today’s time. TJ calls this the Cosmos Time for all. TJ’s books are available on Amazon as Knowing Cosmology, Theresa of Ascension, Enchanted Development and many more books by Author Theresa J Morris. Writer for UFO Digest. TJ shares her time with chosen friends in this world and others. TJ is a Communications Commander in this lifetime and shares a paranormal life compared to many inside the matrix. TJ is about co-creating a new paradigm in the Golden Age described by her and visionaries, and futurists.
Theresa J Morris known as TJ Morris ET Contactee is an Intuitive Tarot Reader, Life Coach, Spiritual Adviser, Author, and Ascension Universal Life Minister. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris became the ET Spirit Guide and has written hundreds of articles and books on cosmology, and the book on How to Social Network Metaphysics. TJ is the founder of the original Ascension Center Energetics and has been doing readings since 1978. TJ became a Private and Legal Investigator, and has prior military experience. TJ has been online officially with her own company since 2004. TJ began the Ascension Center Psychic Network in Hawaii and now lives in Kentucky. TJ now does Intuitive Psychic Tarot Readings to assist others. TJ has had 2 near death experiences one in 1958 and one in 1974. TJ had an epiphany life changing event 10-10-10 and received direct revelation information on numerous occasions from ET beings and transmissions. TJ’s memories of past lives assist her in knowing of UFOlogy in this lifetime along with Cosmology. TJ shares her life using her own ET spirit journey experiences with her talent and skills as an intuitive ET Spirit Guide Tarot Reader.
ACO Consciousness, Parapsychology, Ufology, Women ET Contactees as Spiritual Evolution of our Species Ancient Wisdom and New Thought Teachings with TJ Morris Entertainment Tonight Radio. International Headquarters -Agent – Founder Director President – Theresa J Morris
We the members of the original Ascension Center ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and educational awareness.
Ascension Centers founded for spiritual growth, education, and continues research for the communication of truth. Services are provided as private and group counseling, study groups, classes, seminars, written publications, audio/visual tapes, and other workshop materials, which is a synthesis of ancient wisdoms and new thought teachings and philosophies.
We share ACO LLC Associates, Consultants, Organizers for the Spiritual Transformation Movement for health and prosperity for all. We specialize in the healing and knowing of believing that we are all extraterrestrials sharing universal wisdom of the entire cosmos and the theory of everything.